In this post, we have shared an overview and download link of BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy. There are many books for Anatomy one can read, but BD Chaurasia is still considered the best book of Anatomy. BD Chaurasiya Human Anatomy 7th edition PDF series is coming soon. Where can I download a PDF of Shoukat N. Kazi's anatomy guide book? Click on the Link to get Latest Edition of BD chaurasia Human anatomy PDF. BD Chaurasia book download for free in pdf ebook format. Read our complete review on Anatomy in First year MBBS, one of medical subject.

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Human Anatomy - Lower Limb, Abdomen & Pelvis (Volume 2).pdf - Ebook volumes of their extremely popular book BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy, the third. In this Article, we have shared a review and a free pdf download link (Google Drive) of the BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy PDF which includes. goudzwaard.info The Motivation Manifesto BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy - Lower Limb, Abdomen & Pelvis (Volume 2).

BD Chaurasia human anatomy volume 3 pdf. This book covers all the topics of head, neck and brain. If you want to study the head and neck in detail with clinical points and dissection, you must read this book once. Bd Chaurasia books are one of the best books of anatomy. And each volume has separate chapters for different organs, systems and regions. You can download the third edition of this book in pdf format free below. If you want study head, neck and brain anatomy you should concern this book as it covers clinical side and dissection of head and neck as well. This is one of the most popular and best selling Anatomy book in Asia but is also used in other parts of the world. In Medical Library. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email.

The tubercle of the iliac crest is an elevation that lies on the outer lip about 5 cm behind the anterior superior iliac spine Fig. Sacropelvic Surface The dorsal segment forms less than the posterior onethird of the crest. The rough lower part of this spine gives attachment to the iliofemoral ligament Figs 2.

The attachments on the gluteal surface are as follows. The intermediate area of the iliac crest gives origin to the internal oblique muscle in its anterior twothirds Figs 2. The upper half of the anterior inferior iliac spine gives origin to the straight head of the rectus femoris.

The inner lip of the iliac crest provides a origin to the transversus abdominis in its anterior two-thirds Fig. The posterior border of the ilium provides a attachment to the upper fibres of the sacrotuberous ligament above the greater sciatic notch Fig. The tubercle of the crest marks the point of maximum traction by the iliotibial tract Figs 2. The outer lip of the iliac crest provides a attachment to the fascia lata in its whole extent.

The attachments on the dorsal segment of the iliac crest are as follows. It is directed upwards and backwards. The attachments on the pelvic surface are as follows. It forms the anteroinferior part of the hip bone and the anterior one-fifth of the acetabulum. The convex margin of the auricular surface gives attachment to the ventral sacroiliac ligament. The posterior or pelvic surface is smooth.

The anterior surface is directed downwards. The pubic tubercle is the lateral end of the pubic crest. It is rough supero-medially and smooth elsewhere. The iliac tuberosity provides attachment to a the interosseous sacroiliac ligament in its greater part. It forms the anterior wall of the true pelvis. The iliac fossa gives origin to the iliacus from its upper two-thirds Fig. Body of Pubis This is flattened from before backwards.

The lower grooved part of the fossa is covered by the iliac bursa. It has 1 a body anteriorly. The medial or symphyseal surface articulates with. The anterior border is called the obturator crest.

Superior Ramus It extends from the body of the pubis to the acetabulum. The pectineal surface is a triangular area between the anterior and superior borders. The inferior border is sharp and forms the upper margin of the obturator foramen.

The pelvic surface lies between the superior and inferior borders. The superior border is called the pectineal line or pecten pubis. It has three borders and three surfaces. The obturator surface lies between the anterior and inferior borders. The border is a rounded ridge. It is smooth and is continuous with the pelvic surface of the body of the pubis. It is a sharp crest extending from just behind the pubic tubercle to the posterior part of the iliopubic eminence.

With the pubic crest it forms the pubic part of the arcuate line. It presents the obturator groove. Inferior Ramus It extends from the body of the pubis to the ramus of the ischium. In males. The anterior surface of the body of the pubis provides a attachment to the anterior pubic ligament medially. The lateral part of the crest gives origin to the lateral head of the rectus abdominis. The posterior surface of the body of the pubis provides a origin to the levator ani from its middle part.

It unites with the ramus of the ischium to form the conjoined ischiopubic rami. The pectineal line provides attachment to a the conjoint tendon at the medial end.

For convenience of description the conjoined rami will be considered together at the end. The pubic tubercle provides attachment to the medial end of the inguinal ligament and to ascending loops of the cremaster muscle. The medial part of the pubic crest is crossed by the medial head of the rectus abdominis. From above downwards it presents a convex surface adj oining the acetabulum. It also forms part of the lower border of the greater sciatic notch.

It forms part of the lower border of ilium. The ischial tuberosity is divided by a transverse ridge into an upper and a lower area. The pelvic surface is crossed by the ductus deferens in males. It gives off the ramus of the ischium which forms an acute angle with the body.

It has two ends. The upper part of the pectineal surface gives origin to the pectineus Fig. The femoral surface lies between the anterior and lateral borders. The anterior border forms the posterior margin of the obturator foramen.

Body of the Ischium This is a thick and massive mass of bone that lies below and behind the acetabulum. Below the spine the posterior margin shows a projection called the ischial spine. Below the spine the posterior border shows a concavity called the lesser sciatic notch. The upper end forms the posteroinferior two-fifths of the acetabulum. The ischium. The obturator groove transmits the obturator vessels and nerve. The lateral border forms the lateral margin of the ischial tuberosity.

The dorsal surface is continuous above with the gluteal surface of the ilium. The ischium has a body and a ramus Figs 2. It forams the posterior boundary of the obturator foramen. The posterior border is continuous above with the posterior border of the ilium.

See attachments on conjoined ischiopubic rami. The upper area. The lower end forms the ischial tuberosity. The ischial spine provides a attachment to the sacrospinous ligament along its margins and b origin for the posterior fibres of the levator ani from its pelvic surface.

The femoral surface of the ischium gives origin to a the obturator externus along the margin of the obturator foramen and b the quadratus femoris along the lateral border of the upper part of the ischial tuberosity Fig. The sharp medial margin of the tuberosity gives attachment to the sacrotuberous ligament. Conjoined Ischiopubic Rami Bones 13 The inferior ramus of the pubis unites with the ramus of the ischium on the medial side of the obturator foramen.

The greater part of the pelvic surface of the ischium gives origin to the obturator internus. There is a bursa deep to the tendon. The upper border forms part of the margin of the obturator foramen. The lower area is subdivided by a longitudinal ridge into outer and inner area Fig. The dorsal surface of the ischium has the following relationships. The upper and lower margins of the notch give origin to the superior and inferior gemelli respectively Fig.

The attachments on the ischial tuberosity are as follows. The notch is lined by hyaline cartilage. The upper convex area is related to the piriformis. The groove transmits the tendon of the obturator internus Fig. The conjoined rami have 1 two borders. The 7ower border forms the pubic arch along with the corresponding border of the bone of the opposite side. The pelvic surface is smooth and forms part of the lateral wall of the true pelvis. The lateral border of the ischial tuberosity provides attachment to the ischiofemoral ligament.

The inner surface is convex and smooth. The inner lower area is covered with fibrofatty tissue which supports body weight in the sitting position. It is divided into three areas. The lesser sciatic notch is occupied by the tendon of the obturator internus. The site of union may be marked by a localized thickening.

Its dorsal surface is crossed by the internal pudendal vessels and by the nerve to the obturator internus Figs 2. The superolateral area gives origin to the semimembranosus. The upper area gives origin to the obturator internus.

The perineal membrane is attached to the lower ridge. The upper ridge gives attachment to the upper layer of the urogenital diaphragm. The middle area gives origin to the sphincter urethrae and to the. It is large and oval in males. It is bridged by the transverse ligament. Ossification in the acetabulum is complete at years. The lower area provides attachment to the eras penis. These are i the iliac crest. At birth the hip bone is ossified except for three cartilaginous parts.

It is closed by the obturator membrane which is attached to its margins. The ischiopubic rami fuse with each other at 7 to 8 years of age Fig. It is a deep cup-shaped hemispherical cavity on the lateral aspect of the hip bone. The nonarticular roughened floor is called the acetabular fossa. The fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum is attached to the margins of the acetabulum. This is a large gap in the hip bone. The primary centres appear. A horseshoe-shaped articular surface or lunate surface is seen on the anterior.

It contains a mass of fat which is lined by synovial membrane. The anterior superior iliac spine. It is lined with hyaline cartilage.

Hj Bones 15 deep transverse perinei. The hip bone ossifies in cartilage from three primary centres and five secondary centres. The secondary centres appear at puberty.

BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy PDF Free Download [All Volumes]

It is directed laterally. The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly. The angle of femoral torsion or angle of ante. The anterior surface is flat.

BD Chaurassia Volume 1 (Upper Limb & Thorax)

Blood supply. The angle facilitates movements of the hip joint. It is strengthened by a thickening of bone called the calcar femorale present along its concavity.

The curvatures of the iliac crest are more pronounced in males. The vessels. Like any other long bone it has two ends upper and lower. This set constitutes the main supply and damage to it results in necrosis of the head following fractures of the neck of the femur.

The articular cartilage of the head may extend to this surface. Only a little more than its medial half is intracapsular. This pit is called the fovea. The obturator foramen is large and oval in males. The intracapsular part of the neck is supplied by the retinacular arteries derived chiefly from the trochanteric anastomosis. It connects the head with the shaft and is about 3. These arterial twigs enter the acetabular notch and then pass along the round ligament to reach the head Fig.

The upper border. It articulates with the acetabulum to form the hip joint. The posterior surface is convex from above downwards and concave from side to side.

The head is directed medially upwards and slightly forwards. The pubic crest is shorter in males. The chilotic line extends from the iliopubic eminence to the iliac crest. It meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric crest. The neck has two borders and two surfaces.

The lower border. It is entirely intracapsular. In females. A roughened pit is situated just below and behind the centre of the head. These are described as follows. The upper end bears a rounded head whereas the lower end is widely expanded to form two large condyles.

It makes an angle with the shaft. It is less in females due to their wider pelvis. The head forms more than half a sphere. Upper End The upper end of the femur includes the head. The lower margin of the ischiopubic rami is more everted in males. The iliac fossa is deeper in males. Head 1.

The shaft is directed obliquely downwards and medially so that the lower surfaces of the two condyles of the femur lie in the same horizontal plane.

The preauricular sulcus is more marked in females. It is crossed by a horizontal groove for the tendon of the obturator externus. The head is directed medially. The acetabulum is large in males.

After epiphyseal fusion. The cylindrical shaft is convex forwards. Neck 1. It is about 15 degrees. It meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric line. The apex is the inturned posterior part of the posterior border. The upper border of the trochanter lies at the towards the head. The extracapsular part of the 2. This is large quadrangular prominence located fossa below. The medial surface presents a rough impression above.

The anterior surface is rough ln its a Greater Trochanter l teral part. The lateral surface is crossed by an at the upper part of the junction of the neck with the oblique ridge directed downwards and forwards. The greater trochanter has an upper border neck is supplied by the ascending branch of the with an apex. The part of the surface over the lateral condyle is short and straight anteroposteriorly.

In the middle one-third. The patellar surface covers the anterior surfaces of both condyles. Lesser Trochanter It is a conical eminence directed medially and backwards from the junction of the posteroinferior part of the neck with the shaft. The medial border and medial supracondylar line meet inferiorly to obliterate the medial surface. It is a smooth-rounded ridge. Between the two condyles. Articular Surface The shaft is more or less cylindrical.

It is narrowest in the middle. Intertrochanteric Line It marks the junction of the anterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. It is separated from the tibial surfaces by two faint grooves. It is convex forwards and is directed obliquely downwards and medially. The medial and lateral surfaces are directed more backwards than towards the sides. Intertrochanteric Crest It marks the junction of the posterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. In the lower one-third of the shaft also.

The spiral line winds round the shaft below the lesser trochanter to reach the posterior surface of the shaft Fig. The linea aspera has distinct medial and lateral lips.

The rounded elevation. Shaft In the upper one-third of the shaft. The gluteal tuberosity is a broad roughened ridge on the lateral part of the posterior surface. Lower End The lower end of the femur is widely expanded to form two large condyles. The medial and lateral borders are rounded and ill-defined. It is a prominent roughened ridge which begins above.

The tibial surfaces cover the inferior and posterior surfaces of the two condyles. The two condyles are partially covered by a large articular surface which is divisible into patellar and tibial parts.

The part over the medial condyle. Thus it has four borders. It has a deeper anterior part and a shallower posterior part. The most prominent point on it is called the medial epicondyle. The lateral aspect presents the following. Intercondylar Fossa or Intercondylar Notch This notch separates the lower and posterior parts of the two condyles.

The attachments on the shaft are as follows. Posterosuperior to the epicondyle there is a projection. This tubercle is an important landmark. It is limited anteriorly by the patellar articular surface. Though it is less prominent than the medial condyle.

The attachments on the lesser trochanter are as follows. Lateral Condyle The lateral condyle is flat laterally. The trochanteric bursa of the gluteus medius lies in front of the ridge. The intertrochanteric line provides: The fovea on the head of the femur provides attachment to the ligament of the head of femur or round ligament. The quadrate tubercle receives the insertion of the quadratus femoris Fig. The following are attached to the greater trochanter.

The epiphyseal line for the lower end of the femur passes through it. The origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius extends to the popliteal surface just above the medial condyle. They separate the extensor muscles from the adductors medially. When the knee is flexed the tendon of this muscle lies in the shallow posterior part of the groove.

The attachments on the lateral condyle are as follows. In case it is absent. The infrapatellar synovial fold is attached to the anterior border of the intercondylar fossa. The intercondylar line provides attachment to the capsular ligament and laterally to the oblique popliteal ligament. The following points are noteworthy. The attachments on the medial condyle are as follows. The primary centre for the shaft appears in the seventh week of intrauterine life. Nutrient Artery to the Femur This is derived from the second perforating artery.

The attachments on the intercondylar notch are as follows. There are three epiphyses at the upper end and one epiphysis at the lower end. The posterior cruciate ligament is attached to the anterior part of the lateral surface of the medial condyle.

The upper epiphyses. The lower epiphysis fuses by the twentieth year. The nutrient foramen is located on the medial side of the linea aspera. The femur ossifies from one primary and four secondary centres. The secondary centres appear. It is covered by an expansion frorr the tendon of the rectus femoris. The posterioi surface is articular in its upper three-fourths and non-articular in its lower onefourth. The apex directed downwards. Another vertical ridge separates a medial strip from the medial portion.

This mechanism helps in resisting stresses including that of body weight. The bone laid on a table rests on th broad lateral area. Structure The angles and curvatures of the femur are strengthened on their concave sides by bony buttresses. The posterior articular surface is divided by. The anterior surface is rough and non-articulai The upper three-fourths of the posterior surface ar smooth and articular. The apex is non-articula posteriorly.

This strip articulates with a reciprocal strip on the medial side of the intercondylar notch of the femur during full flexion. The rest of the medial portion and the lateral portion of the articular surface are divided by two transverse lines into three pairs of facets. The concavity of the neck-shaft angle is strengthened by a thickened buttress of compact bone. The patella is triangular in shape with its ape directed downwards.

Presence of its centre in a newly born child found dead indicates that the child was viable. The articular area is divided by a vertical ridge into a larger lateral and smaller medial portion. In addition. Tripping over minor obstructions or other accidents causing forced medial rotation of the thigh and leg during the fall results in: Ossification of femur.

Features The patella has an apex. The articular surface has a raised medial margin which covers the 1. The upper end includes: The lateral borderprovides insertion to vastus lateralis in its upper one-third or half. One or two centres at the superolateral angle of the patella may form separate pieces of bone. Medial Condyle Medial condyle is larger than the lateral condyle. The condition is bilateral and symmetrical Fig. The medial side of the lower end projects downwards beyond the rest of the bone.

Features The tibia has an upper end. The posterior surface of the medial condyle has a groove. Its superior surface articulates with the medial condyle of the femur. The lateral margin of the articular surface is raised to cover the medial intercondylar tubercle. It is sinuously curved and terminates below at the anterior border of the medial malleolus. This is prevented by 1 bony factor—the lateral edge of the patellar articular surface of the femur is deeper than the medial edge Fig.

The anterior border of the shaft is most prominent and crest-like. The peripheral part is flat and is separated from the femoral condyle by the medial meniscus.

Fracture of the patella should be differentiated from a bipartite or a tripartite patella Fig. The non-articular area on the posterior surface provides attachment to the ligamentum patellae below. The articular surface is oval and its long axis is anteroposterior. The medial borderprovides insertion to the vastus medialis in its upper two-thirds or more.

The anterior and medial surfaces are marked by numerous vascular foramina. The upper end is much larger than the lower end. As in the case of the medial condyle. Such a patella is known as bipartite or tripartite patella. It is homologous with the radius of the upper limb.

The articular surface is nearly circular. The patella probably improves the leverage of the quadriceps femoris by increasing the angulation of the line of pull on the leg. The central part of the surface is slightly concave and comes into direct contact with the femoral condyle. Fusion is complete at puberty. The superior surface of the condyle articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur.

The patella ossifies from several centres which appear during 3 to 6 years of age. Lateral Condyle The lateral condyle overhangs the shaft more than the medial condyle. Attachments on the Patella The superior border or base provides insertion to the rectus femoris in front and to the vastus intermedius behind.

The projection is called the medial malleolus. Upper End The upper end of the tibia is markedly expanded from side to side. The lower pair of articular facets articulates during extension. During different phases of movements of the knee. The patella has a natural tendency to dislocate outwards because of the outward angulation between the long axes of the thigh and leg.

It is widest in its upper pa This part is crossed obliquely by a rough ridge calL the soleal line. The medial border is rounded. Lower End The lower end of the tibia is slightly expanded.

The interosseous or lateral border extends from the lateral condyle a little below and in front of the fibular facet.

Above the soleal line. The lower part is smooth and may be covered with hyaline cartilage. Attachments on the Medial Condyle a The semimembranosus is inserted into the groove on the posterior surface.

The medial malleolus is a short but strong process which projects downwards from the medial surface of the lower end of the tibia. Borders The anterior border is sharp and S-shaped being convex medially in the upper part and convex laterally in the lower part. The medial surface is subcutaneous and is continuous with the medial surface of the medial malleolus. It is divided into medial and laten parts by a vertical ridge. Surfaces The lateral surface lies between the anterior and interosseous borders.

It has five surfaces. It has three borders. The lateral aspect of the lower end presents a triangular fibular notch to which the lower end of the fibula is attached. Medially the articular surface extends on to the medial malleolus. The upper part of the notch is rough. It is subcutaneous and forms the shin. The posterior surface lies between the medial ai interosseous borders. The inferior surface of the lower end is articular.

A nutrient foramen i situated near the upper end of this ridge. It extends from the tibial tuberosity above to the anterior border of the medial malleolus below. It forms a subcutaneous prominence on the medial side of the ankle. It extends from the medial condyle. The area below the sole.

The medial surface lies between the anterior and medial borders. It articulates with the superior trochlear surface of the talus and thus takes part in forming the ankle joint. The soleal line begins just behind tl fibular facet. The anterior surface of the lower end has an upper smooth part. It is broad. In its upper three-fourths. Shaft The shaft of the tibia is prismoid in shape. It i directed downwards and transmits the nutrient arter which is a branch of the posterior tibial artery.

The lower rough area of the tuberosity is subcutaneous. Overview Of BD Chaurasia.

BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy PDF Free Download [All Volumes] | Medicos Times

The book has received numerous updates since it was first launched, creating a new volume every time it is updated. New images and texts are added, however, the basic content has somehow been unchanged. You can always opt for other books, but in India, even the top colleges follow it. Here are some of the features of the first volume of this anatomy book: The first and foremost thing about this book is that it is one of the most of the detailed book.

As this single volume out of three is only about upper limb and thorax. Only two units i. This human anatomy book is written by BD Chaurasia, who is a well-known anatomy author for this book as well as general anatomy handbook. There are multiple additions to this human anatomy book which means that this is a frequently updated book.

There is best anatomy illustration including dissections that makes it easy for students to learn the gross anatomy. The medial or symphyseal surface articulates with Superior Ramus It extends from the body of the pubis to the acetabulum, above the obturator foramen. It has three borders and three surfaces. The superior border is called the pectineal line or pecten pubis.

It is a sharp crest extending from just behind the pubic tubercle to the posterior part of the iliopubic eminence.

With the pubic crest it forms the pubic part of the arcuate line. The anterior border is called the obturator crest. The border is a rounded ridge, extending from the pubic tubercle to the acetabular notch. The inferior border is sharp and forms the upper margin of the obturator foramen. The pectineal surface is a triangular area between the anterior and superior borders, extending from the pubic tubercle to the iliopubic eminence. The pelvic surface lies between the superior and inferior borders.

It is smooth and is continuous with the pelvic surface of the body of the pubis. The obturator surface lies between the anterior and inferior borders. It presents the obturator groove. Inferior Ramus It extends from the body of the pubis to the ramus of the ischium, medial to the obturator foramen. It unites with the ramus of the ischium to form the conjoined ischiopubic rami.

For convenience of description the conjoined rami will be considered together at the end. The pubic tubercle provides attachment to the medial end of the inguinal ligament and to ascending loops of the cremaster muscle. In males, the tubercle is crossed by the spermatic cord Figs 3. The medial part of the pubic crest is crossed by the medial head of the rectus abdominis. The lateral part of the crest gives origin to the lateral head of the rectus abdominis, and to the pyramidalis Fig.

The anterior surface of the body of the pubis provides a attachment to the anterior pubic ligament medially, b origin to the adductor longus in the angle between the crest and the symphysis, c origin to the gracilis, from the margin of the symphysis, and from the inferior ramus, d origin to the adductor brevis lateral to the origin of the gracilis, and e origin to the obturator externus near the margin of the obturator foramen Figs 2.

The posterior surface of the body of the pubis provides a origin to the levator ani from its middle part, b origin to the obturator internus laterally Fig. The pectineal line provides attachment to a the conjoint tendon at the medial end, b the lacunar ligament at the medial end, in front of the attachment of the conjoint tendon; c the pectinate ligament along the whole length of the line lateral to the attachment of the lacunar ligament, d the pectineus muscle which arises from the whole length of the line Fig.

The upper part of the pectineal surface gives origin to the pectineus Fig. The pelvic surface is crossed by the ductus deferens in males, and the round ligament of the uterus in females. The obturator groove transmits the obturator vessels and nerve. See attachments on conjoined ischiopubic rami. It forams the posterior boundary of the obturator foramen.

The ischium has a body and a ramus Figs 2. Body of the Ischium This is a thick and massive mass of bone that lies below and behind the acetabulum. It has two ends, upper and lower; three borders, anterior, posterior and lateral; and three surfaces, femoral, dorsal and pelvic.

The upper end forms the posteroinferior two-fifths of the acetabulum. The ischium, ilium and pubis fuse with each other in the acetabulum. The lower end forms the ischial tuberosity. It gives off the ramus of the ischium which forms an acute angle with the body. The anterior border forms the posterior margin of the obturator foramen. The posterior border is continuous above with the posterior border of the ilium.

Below, it ends at the upper end of the ischial tuberosity. It forms part of the lower border of ilium. It also forms part of the lower border of the greater sciatic notch.

Below the spine the posterior margin shows a projection called the ischial spine. Below the spine the posterior border shows a concavity called the lesser sciatic notch. The lateral border forms the lateral margin of the ischial tuberosity, except at the upper end where it is rounded. The femoral surface lies between the anterior and lateral borders. The dorsal surface is continuous above with the gluteal surface of the ilium.

From above downwards it presents a convex surface adj oining the acetabulum, a wide shallow groove, and the upper part of the ischial tuberosity. The ischial tuberosity is divided by a transverse ridge into an upper and a lower area. The upper area is subdivided by an oblique ridge into a superolateral area and an inferomedial area.

The lower area is subdivided by a longitudinal ridge into outer and inner area Fig. The pelvic surface is smooth and forms part of the lateral wall of the true pelvis. Conjoined Ischiopubic Rami Bones 13 The inferior ramus of the pubis unites with the ramus of the ischium on the medial side of the obturator foramen. The site of union may be marked by a localized thickening. The conjoined rami have 1 two borders, upper and lower, and 2 two surfaces, outer and inner. The upper border forms part of the margin of the obturator foramen.

The 7ower border forms the pubic arch along with the corresponding border of the bone of the opposite side.

The inner surface is convex and smooth. It is divided into three areas, upper, middle and lower, by two ridges.

The ischial spine provides a attachment to the sacrospinous ligament along its margins and b origin for the posterior fibres of the levator ani from its pelvic surface. Its dorsal surface is crossed by the internal pudendal vessels and by the nerve to the obturator internus Figs 2.

The lesser sciatic notch is occupied by the tendon of the obturator internus. There is a bursa deep to the tendon. The notch is lined by hyaline cartilage. The upper and lower margins of the notch give origin to the superior and inferior gemelli respectively Fig. The femoral surface of the ischium gives origin to a the obturator externus along the margin of the obturator foramen and b the quadratus femoris along the lateral border of the upper part of the ischial tuberosity Fig.

The dorsal surface of the ischium has the following relationships. The upper convex area is related to the piriformis, the sciatic nerve, and the nerve to the quadratus femoris. The groove transmits the tendon of the obturator internus Fig. The attachments on the ischial tuberosity are as follows. The superolateral area gives origin to the semimembranosus, the inferomedial area to the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps femoris, and the outer lower area to the adductor magnus Figs 2.

The inner lower area is covered with fibrofatty tissue which supports body weight in the sitting position. The sharp medial margin of the tuberosity gives attachment to the sacrotuberous ligament. The lateral border of the ischial tuberosity provides attachment to the ischiofemoral ligament, just below the acetabulum. The greater part of the pelvic surface of the ischium gives origin to the obturator internus.

The a The upper border gives attachment to the obturator membrane. The upper ridge gives attachment to the upper layer of the urogenital diaphragm. The perineal membrane is attached to the lower ridge. The upper area gives origin to the obturator internus.

The middle area gives origin to the sphincter urethrae and to the Hj Bones 15 deep transverse perinei, and is related to the dorsal nerve of the penis, and to the internal pudendal vessels.

The lower area provides attachment to the eras penis, and gives origin to the ischiacavernosus and to the superficial transverse perinei Fig. It is a deep cup-shaped hemispherical cavity on the lateral aspect of the hip bone, about its centre. It is directed laterally, downwards and forwards.

The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly, this deficiency is called the acetabular notch. It is bridged by the transverse ligament. The nonarticular roughened floor is called the acetabular fossa. It contains a mass of fat which is lined by synovial membrane.

A horseshoe-shaped articular surface or lunate surface is seen on the anterior, superior, and posterior parts of the acetabulum. It is lined with hyaline cartilage, and articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.

The fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum is attached to the margins of the acetabulum; it deepens the acetabular cavity. The primary centres appear, one for the ilium during the second month of intrauterine life; one for the ischium during the fourth month; and one for the pubis during the fifth month. At birth the hip bone is ossified except for three cartilaginous parts.

These are i the iliac crest; ii a Y-shaped cartilage separating the ilium, ischium and pubis; and iii a strip along the inferior margin of the bone including the ischial tuberosity.

The ischiopubic rami fuse with each other at 7 to 8 years of age Fig. The secondary centres appear at puberty, two for the iliac crest, two for the Y-shaped cartilage of the acetabulum and one for the ischial tuberosity. Ossification in the acetabulum is complete at years, and the rest of the bone is ossified by years. The anterior superior iliac spine, pubic tubercle and crest and the symphyseal surface may have separate secondary centres of ossification.

This is a large gap in the hip bone, situated anteroinferior to acetabulum, between the pubis and the ischium. It is large and oval in males, and small and triangular in females. It is closed by the obturator membrane which is attached to its margins, except at the obturator groove where the obturator vessels and nerve pass out of the pelvis.

The greater sciatic notch is wider in females 75 than in males The acetabulum is large in males, and its diameter is approximately equal to the distance from its anterior margin to the pubic symphysis. The chilotic line extends from the iliopubic eminence to the iliac crest.

In females, the pelvic part of the chilotic line is longer than the sacral part. The curvatures of the iliac crest are more pronounced in males. The iliac fossa is deeper in males. The pubic crest is shorter in males. The lower margin of the ischiopubic rami is more everted in males, for the attachments of the crus of the penis with inturned ischial spine. The preauricular sulcus is more marked in females.

The obturator foramen is large and oval in males, and small and triangular in females. The subpubic angle is more in females and is Like any other long bone it has two ends upper and lower, and a shaft Figs 2. The upper end bears a rounded head whereas the lower end is widely expanded to form two large condyles. The head is directed medially. The cylindrical shaft is convex forwards.

The head is directed medially upwards and slightly forwards. The shaft is directed obliquely downwards and medially so that the lower surfaces of the two condyles of the femur lie in the same horizontal plane. Upper End The upper end of the femur includes the head, the neck, the greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter, the intertrochanteric line, and the intertrochanteric crest.

These are described as follows. Head 1. The head forms more than half a sphere, and is directed medially, upwards and slightly forwards Fig. It articulates with the acetabulum to form the hip joint. A roughened pit is situated just below and behind the centre of the head.

This pit is called the fovea. Blood supply, a The smaller, medial part of the head, near the fovea, is supplied by medial epiphyseal arteries derived from the posterior division of the obturator artery and from the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery.

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