Page 1 David R H Jones. Engineering Department, Cambridge University, England. International Series on Materials Science and Technology, Volume Engineering Materials 1 - 5th Edition - ISBN: , View on ScienceDirect DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi). × DRM-Free. M. F. Ashby and D. R. H. Jones, Engineering Materials 1: An Introduction to their An image bank of downloadable PDF versions of the figures from the book is.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
Case Study 1: Selecting Materials for Racing. Yacht Masts. . Case Study 2: Plastic Design—Materials .. Engineering Developments—Blade. Engineering Materials. Msc. Shaymaa Mahmood. 1. Introduction to Eng. Materials: Since the earliest days of the evolution of mankind, the main distinguishing. imperfections crystals. Chapter Introduction to Engineering Materials. Introduction. Materials play an important role for our existence, for our day to day needs.
Brittle metals are one that breaks shatters before it deformed. While cast iron and cast aluminum very hard steel and glass is the one of the best example of the brittle materials. Generally a brittle metal are very high in the compression strength and in tensile strength. Brittle metals are not suitable for the heavy loads as they could break easily and can cause the damage.
It is the mechanical property of the metals to be liquefied by heating this process is called welding. Here metals are liquefied and then joined together when it becomes harden it becomes one piece. Steel liquefy at oF while aluminum alloy at oF. Creep is the tendency of metal to moves slowly or deform permanently under the influence of stresses.
It occurs as the result of the long term exposure to a high level of stress that are below the yield point of the material. Creep is more swear in materials that are subjected to heat for the long periods and near the melting points.
Creep deformation is the time dependent deformation. The temperature ranges in which the creep deformation may occur is different in various metals. Ferrous materials are usually refers to the materials that have a low content of iron in them. Some important non ferrous metals are aluminum, copper, lead, tin and zinc.
Aluminum found its maximum use in every field of engineering due to its particular properties softness, lightweight it has become very useful metal in all over the world. Modified metallurgical processes have improved strength and durability of different metals to such an extent that it has made maximum use of aluminum in engineering processes. Copper is one of the most widely used metal but due to its high price we use it with some limitations in engineering work.
Tin is very common metal in the family of non ferrous metals. It is mostly use as a protection layer for the protection of different metals. Zinc is commonly use as a protective metal or in making alloys.
Alloys are usually the combination of metallic alloys is a metallic solution composed of two or more materials alloying you to add one metal into other one or more metals or non metals in molten state and then allow freezing. For examples Sr. Name Composition no. Ferrous alloys has iron as major component chromium, vanadium, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum and manganese are metals that forms ferrous alloys with iron.
The nickel increases the strength and the elastic limit of the alloys usually nickel steel contains 0. It contains 0.
It is sometimes called high speed steel. Stainless steel is the name given to the group of alloys that contains minimum of Chromium has high affinity for oxygen and forms stable oxides films on the surface of the stainless steel the film is called the passive oxide layer and form instantaneously in ordinary atmosphere this films is self healing and rebuilds when it has been removed this film that gives the stainless steel corrosion resistance in metallurgy stainless steel is also called inox steel or simply inox.
This group of stainless steel contains 0. The most widely useful austenitic steel is grade or A2 SS. They are usually contains Increases the chromium a parts increases the resistance to corrosion at elevated temperatures.
Ferritic steel have better engineering properties then austenitic steel. Series includes many Ferritic steels. These steels are not corrosion resistance as austenitic steel and Ferritic steels but are extremely strong and tough. The high carbon content of this steel allows them to response well to the heat treatment to gives various mechanical strength such as hardness. They have mixed microstructure of the both austenitic stainless steel and Ferritic stainless steel.
Lean duplex stainless steel is formulated to have comparable corrosion resistance to the standard austenitic stainless steel but enhanced strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Super duplex stainless steel have enhanced strength and resistance to other forms of corrosion compared to the austenitic stainless steel.
S is a super duplex stainless steel desire to resistance to pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. For resistance to stress corrosion cracking and for very high strength application include oil and gas industry, offshore, petrochemical plants, desalination plants and mechanical and structural components demanding high strength combine with high corrosion resistance.
These steels can develop very high strength by adding elements such as copper and aluminum etc… with suitable heat treatment very fine particles from the matrix of steel which imparts strength. The hardness of this alloy depends upon the amount of zinc present. In the most common use of the world this means electrochemical oxidation of the metals with an oxidant such as oxygen formation of oxide of iron due to oxidation of the iron atoms it is a well known example of electrochemical corrosion commonly known as rusting.
Uniform general attack corrosion is characterized by corrosive attack proceeding evenly over the entire surface area of a large surface area of the total area. It is simply oxidation and reduction occurring uniformly over the surface it results from the direct chemical attack and involve majorly the metal surface in natural environment. Oxygen is the primary cause of the uniform general attack corrosion of steel and other metal alloys general thinning takes place until failure.
It is the most important form of the corrosion however the uniform general attack corrosion is relatively easily measured. Corrosion occurs uniformly over the entire surface of the metal component. It can be practically controlled by the cathode protection use for coating or paints.
It is also known as dissimilar metal corrosion or wrongly electrolysis. Galvanic corrosion is refer to the corrosion damage include when two dissimilar metals are coupled in a corrosive electrolyte. When a galvanic couple is forms one of the metals in a couple become anode and corrodes faster than it would by itself while other becomes the cathode slower than it would alone. It can be prevented by insulating the metals keeping metals dry or sheelted from ionic compounds coating, electroplating and choosing metal of similar potential.
It is the form of extremely localized corrosion that leads to creation of the small cavities in metal. The driving path or pitting corrosion is due the presence of oxygen around a small area. It can occur in any metal but its most common metals that form the protective oxide film such as aluminum and magnesium alloys. Similar to the dust which blotches surface.
When the deposited is clean away tinny holes and split can be seen on the surface. Pitting corrosion is considered dearer then the uniform general attack corrosion damage because it is more difficult to detect predicts design against corrosion product often cover the Pitts. A small narrow Pitt can lead to the failure of engineering systems. It can be prevented by controlling the alloys environment proper selection of materials with known resistance to environment.
Acathodic or anodic protection service using higher alloys for increased resistance. It is a localize form of the corrosion usually associated with a stagnant solution on a micro environmental level.
Crevice corrosion is a corrosion occurring in species to which the access of working fluid from the environment is limited. These species are generally called as crevices and a concentration cell is takes place there it results from relative lack of oxygen in a crevice with the metal in a crevice becomes anodic to metal outside stagnant micro environmental tends to occurs in crevices such as those form under gas kits, washer, insulating material surface deposits, threads, lap joints and clamps.
It can be prevented by the liquid removal increasing contents by controlling alloys environmental design vessel from which complete drainage of the liquid may be possible. Use known absorbent gas kit such as Teflon. It occurs between the grains that form when a metal is solidified. To composition of the ores between the grains differ from the grains themselves.
The grain boundary and the grain centre react with each other as an anode and cathode when in contact with an electrolyte. It is difficult to detect the Intergranular corrosion in its early stages when the overall lose of thickness remains minimum. It is localized corrosion attack at the adjacent to a grain boundary of an alloy it is typically associated with welding or heat treating problems.
It can be controlled by using high temperature solution after heating and welding and also using lower carbon contents to 0. Stress corrosion cracking is a sudden failure of normally ductile metals due to the corrosion. It is caused by the simultaneous effect of tensile stress and corrosive environment. It can be prevented by the proper selection of material, remove corrosive environment and use carrion inhibitators.
It is also called as fatigue corrosion. It is a combination of mechanical erosion with chemical or electrochemical reaction. Erosion corrosion is acceleration in the rate of corrosion attack in the metal due the relative motion corrosive fluid and metal surface. It can be prevented by using the appropriate lubricant. It is caused by the formation and collapse of air bubbles filled cavities near the metal surfaces. When a liquid is subjected to rapidly changes pressure causing the formation of cavities in low pressure region of liquid.
This phenomenon is very common in pump impellers. It can be prevented by controlling turbulence and using corrosion inhibitators.
It occurs between two highly loaded surfaces which may not be supposed to move against each other. It is associated with the welding and heat treatment problems. It can be prevented by using high temperature solutions after welding and heat treatment and by using corrosion inhibitators. This type of corrosion is usually caused in alloys by the galvanic mechanism of the removal of one metal component from the alloy. Non Metallic Materials Introduction: Ceramics can be defined as… Solid compound that are formed by the application of heat and sometimes by heat and pressure comparing at least two elements provided one of them is a non-metal and other is a metal or non-metallic elemental solid in other words what is neither a metal, semi-conductor or a polymer is a ceramic in simple ceramics materials are inorganic material that may be a crystalline or partially crystalline they are formed by the action of heat and subsequent cooling-ceramics are usually associated with mixed bonding a combination of ionic, covalent and sometimes metallic bond.
Traditional ceramics includes high volume atoms bricks tiles toilet bowls and pottery. Traditional ceramics usually based on clay and silica there is sometime tendency to equate traditional ceramics with low technology however advanced manufacturing techniques are used.
Examples are clay, Al2O3. Advanced ceramics are often referred to as special ceramics, technical ceramics and engineering ceramics. Clay is a major and basic component of ceramic materials. The percentage of ionic and covalent character can be obtained by considering electro negativity difference between different types of these compounds.
The most technical and traditional ceramics products are manufactured by compacting powder or particles into shapes which are subsequently heated to a high enough temperature to bounds the particles together.
Most ceramics products are made from the agglomeration of particles the raw materials vary depending upon the required properties of finished ceramics product particles and their ingredients such as binders and lubricants may be blended wet or dry for ceramics products which do not have critical properties the blended of ingredients with water is a common factor to produce one type of high alumina insulator the particular raw material are filled with water along with wax winder to form a slurry which is subsequently spray dried to form small special pallets.
Casting may be done in three ways pressing, slip casting and extrusion. Raw materials can be pressed in wet or dry conditions into die to form shapes pressing may be done by three different methods dry pressing, isostatic pressing and hot pressing. This method is commonly used for products such as structural refractories and electronic ceramics components dry pressing may be defined as simultaneous uni axial compaction and shaping of granular products along with small amount of water and organic binders in a die.
In this process ceramics powder is loaded into a flexible air type container that is inside the chamber of hydraulic fluid to which constant pressure is applied the force of the force of applied pressure compacts the powder uniformly in all direction after cold isostatic pressing the part must be fired to achieve the required properties and micro structure ceramics parts manufactured by isostatic pressing includes certain carbide tools, crucibles and Barings.
Thermal treatment is done and the ceramic product is formed which is used according to the requirement. Extrusion is a process by which different ceramics parts of the required shapes can be produced extrusion is done by squeezing the material in a closed cavity through a tool called die using either a mechanical or hydraulic press.
It is the process done at the room temperature or slightly elevated temperature this process can be used for most materials subjected to designing strength enough tooling that can with stand stress created by extrusion.
The advantages of cold extrusion are good mechanical properties due to cold working and good surface finish with a use of proper lubricants. Thermal Treatment: Product obtained after casting is subjected to high temperature to improve its properties and micro structure. Composite Materials: It is a material composed of the mixture or combination of the two or more constituents that differ in the form and chemical composition which are essentially insoluble with each other i.
The examples of natural composite materials are wood, teeth, plant leaves, bones, silk and bird finger. Fiber glass are produced by monofilaments of glass from a furnace containing molten glass a large number of these filaments are fluidized and greater to form a rope these ropes are also called as strands.
They use to make glass fiber your may be to held together by various binders at last this yarn is send to market for sale. Carbon fiber is a composite material made by using the carbon fibers for reinforced plastic resins such as epoxy resins are characterized by having a combination of light weight and increase the properties of the materials for example the adhesive property; very high strength and elasticity.
These properties make use of the carbon fiber composite material especially attractive for aerospace. The relative high cost of the carbon fiber restricts its use in auto industry. Resources of Carbon Fiber: In the stabilization state PAN fibers are first stretched to align hence the fiber network within the each fiber parallel to each other is formed then they are oxidized in air at oCoC which are held in tension.
Carbonization treatment is usually carried out in an inert atmosphere oCoC most of the carbon fibers are completed in the second stage. It is used if an increase in the properties such as elasticity is desire. It is done in the carbon fibers at expense of the high tensile strength.
Graphitization is usually done above C in an inert atmosphere of a gas such as argon after the graphitization carbon fiber is produced and sends to the market for sale. It is a low density high strength Aramid fiber which is design for applications such as ballistic missiles ropes cables etc… Properties of Kevlar It makes its fibers useful as reinforcement for plastic and aerospace, automobile and other industrial applications.
In general words Kevlar is used as a high performance composite material application where light weight, high strength, high stiffness, damage resistance, fatigue resistance and stress rupture are important. Kevlar 49 is mostly used in the industrial equipments.
Polymeric Materials: The word polymer means the many units polymeric solid material may be consider to be one of that contain many chemical bonds or units which themselves are bounded together to form a solid the chemical reaction in which high molecular mass molecules are formed from monomers is called as polymerization.
In this process the monomers and the activators are continuously fed in to the reactor from where the catalyst is present and the continuous product is received at the other end. Monomers and the activators are mixed in a reactor which is heated and then cooled as required this process is used experimentally for condensation polymerization.
Where one monomer may be charged in to the reactor and the other added slowly. The bulk can be used for the many reactions due to its low heat of reaction. The monomers is dissolved in a non reactive solvent which contains a catalyst the heat released by the reaction is absorbed by the solvent and so the reaction rate is slow. The monomers are mixed with a catalyst and then dispersed as a suspension in to the water in this process the heat release by the reaction is absorbed by the water after the polymerization the polymeric product is separated and dried.
This phenomenon is similar to the suspension but we have to add an emulsifier to disappear the monomers into many small particles. A plastic material is any of the wide range of synthetic or the semi synthetic solid used in the manufacturing of the industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass and may contain other substances to improve the performance. These materials can be reheated and reformed in to new shapes for a number of times without significant changes in their properties most of the thermo plastic consists of the long chains mainly of carbon atoms covalently bonded together and sometimes nitrogen, oxygen and sulpher are also found in long chains with carbon atoms are also covalently bonded together to make chain PVC, polyethylene and Teflon are the well known examples of thermo plastics.
Thermosetting plastic are formed in to permanent shapes and reset by chemical reaction they cannot be remelted reformed in to another shape but decompose upon heating to a high temperature they cannot be recycled the best examples of thermosetting plastics are Bakelite, epoxy resins and urea formaldehyde.
It is the one of the most important method used for the thermo plastic materials the modern injection molding machines utilize a reciprocating method for melting of the plastic and injecting in to the mold one of the main advantage of the reciprocating screw method over the plunger time is that a screw leaves a homogeneous material of injection in the injection molding process plastic granular from a happer are fed through an opening in the injection cylinder onto the surface of rotating screw rotating screw derives and carries the materials forward towards the molds.
It is another important processing method used for the thermoplastic materials some of the product is manufactured by the extrusion process are pipes, rods, sheets and many other kinds of shapes extrusion machine is also used for making compounds plastic materials for the production of the raw shapes such as pallets in the extrusion process the thermo plastic material is fed in to a heated cylinder and the melted plastic is formed y a rotating screw through an opening in to a mold to get a final shape after ejecting from a die the extruded part must be cooled the cooling is usually done in the presence of air or water.
In blow molding a cylinder or tube of the heated plastic is paste between the jaws of mold and compresses where is blown which forces he plastic against the walls of the mold. Processing of Thermosetting Plastic Materials: It is also used for the molding of thermosetting plastic such as urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde.
Transfer molding differs from the compression molding in that in compression molding the material is introduced directly in to the mold cavities but in the transfer molding the plastic material is not fed directly in to the mold cavities but fed in to the chamber of outside mold in the transfer molding when the mold is closed a plunger forces the plastic materials from the outside chamber through a system of runners and gates in to the mold cavities.
The structural formula of polyethylene is [-CH2-CH2]n. Polyethylene is clear to whitish thermoplastic material and it is often fabricated in to thin film and has a waxy appearance with the use of proper color agent a wide variety of color product is obtained.
Production of Low Density Polyethylene: Unipole process for the production of the low density polyethylene is one of the important methods.
In this process ethylene monomers with some co monomers are fed continuously in to a fluidized bed reactor in fluidized bed reactor a special catalyst is also added the advantages for this process is the low temperature for the polymerization i. From the top of the reactor the polyethylene gas is passed through a compressor and through a cooler where nitrogen is passing to cool down the product and granular polyethylene is received after the cooling process.
Polyvinylchloride is widely used synthetic plastic that has second largest sale in the world and wide spread use of polyvinylchloride is due to its high chemical resistance and unique activities to produce a large number of compounds with a wide range of physical and chemical properties.
Polyvinylchloride can be used for a few applications without the addition of the number of compounds which can be added in polyvinylchloride to makes its application versatile are plasticizer, heat stabilizers, lubricants, fillers and pigments. Plasticizers are additives that increase the fluidity and plasticity of the materials to which they are added. These are high molecular compounds which are selected to be completely miscible and compatible with the basic material for example phthalate esters are commonly used plasticizers.
Dioctile phthalate DOP is the main plasticizer for polyvinylchloride. Heat stabilizer are added to previously to prevent the thermal degradation during processing and also help to extend the life of the finished product typical heat stabilizer used are organic and inorganic metallic compounds based on tin, lead, calcium and zinc.
Lubricants help the polyvinylchloride to flow during processing and prevent addition to met6al surface waxes fatty esters and metal soaps are commonly used as lubricants. For polyvinylchloride calcium carbonate is the main filler to reduce the cost of finished product. Organic and inorganic pigments are used give color and weather ability to polyvinylchloride compounds. Plasticizer polyvinylchloride is used for furniture, auto industry, shoes, luggage, transportation, electrical insulation, floor tiles, refrigerator and house wears.
It is one of the low cost plastic materials. Because it is produce from the low cost petrochemical materials.
It has a good resistant to moisture chemical and heat it has low density and good surface hardness. It has structural formula [-CF2 — CF2-]. Teflon is completed fluorinated polymer formed by the free radical chain polymerization of Teflon gas to produce linear chain polymer of CF2 the original discovery of the polymerization of tetrafuoroethylene in to Teflon is made by R.
J Plunbelt Teflon is a crystalline polymer with a melting point of C. Teflon is slippery and waxy to touch and has low friction it is used for low chemical resistant pipes high temperature applications, cable insulation, laboratory wears and insulating tapes etc… it is also used in packing seals, gear and other composite materials.
A refractory material is one that retains its strength at high temperature. It is defined as the non metallic materials having those physical and chemical properties that make them applicable for structures or as a component of a system that are exposed to environment about F. Continuum Aspects of Plastic Flow Case Studies in Yield-Limited Design. Part D: Fast Fracture, Brittle Fracture, and Toughness Fast Fracture and Toughness Micromechanisms of Fast Fracture Fracture Probability of Brittle Materials Case Studies in Fracture.
Part E: Fatigue Failure Fatigue Design Case Studies in Fatigue Failure. Part F: Creep Deformation and Fracture Kinetic Theory of Diffusion Mechanisms of Creep, and Creep-Resistant Materials Part G: Oxidation and Corrosion Oxidation of Materials Case Studies in Dry Oxidation Wet Corrosion of Materials Case Studies in Wet Corrosion.
Part H: Friction and Wear Case Studies in Friction and Wear. Part I: Thermal Properties Thermal Expansion Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Final Case Study: Materials and Energy in Car Design. Jones is co-author of Engineering Materials 1 and 2 and lead author for the 3rd and 4th editions.
His research interests are in materials engineering, and along with serving as President of Christ's College at the University of Cambridge he now works internationally advising major companies and legal firms on failures of large steel structures.
Engineering, Science, Processing and Design. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.
If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website.
Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Webpages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. David R. Jones Michael Ashby. Paperback ISBN: Published Date: