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Our plan documents not only specify the objectives to be attained in the five years of a plan but also what is to be achieved over a period of twenty years. The five year plans are supposed to provide the basis for the perspective plan.
It will be unrealistic to expect all the goals of a plan to be given equal importance in all the plans. In fact the goals may actually be in conflict. For example, the goal of introducing modern technology may be in conflict with the goal of increasing employment if the technology reduces the need for labour.
The planners have to balance the goals, a very difficult job indeed. We find different goals being emphasised in different plans in India.
Our five year plans do not spell out how much of each and every good and service is to be produced. This is neither possible nor necessary the former Soviet Union tried to do this and failed.
It is enough if the plan is specific about the sectors where it plays a commanding role, for instance, power generation and irrigation, while leaving the rest to the market. Let us now this outlook. In , the Planning learn about the goals of planning in Commission was set up with the some detail. Prime Minister as its Chairperson.
The era of five year plans had begun. It implies either a specified goals. The goals of the five larger stock of productive capital, year plans are: growth, modernisation, or a larger size of supporting self-reliance and equity. This does not services like transport and mean that all the plans have given b a n k i n g , or an increase in the equal importance to all these goals.
Among them, the name of the statistician, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, stands out. Planning, in the real sense of the term, began with the Second Five Year Plan.
The Second Plan, a landmark contribution to development planning in general, laid down the basic ideas regarding goals of Indian planning; this plan was based on the ideas of Mahalanobis.
In that sense, he can be regarded as the architect of Indian planning. Mahalanobis was born in in Calcutta. His contributions to the subject of statistics brought him international fame.
Statistical Institute ISI in Calcutta and started a journal, Sankhya, which still serves as a respected forum for statisticians to discuss their ideas. Both, the ISI and Sankhya, are highly regarded by statisticians and economists all over the world to this day. Some of these economists became Nobel Prize winners later, which shows that he could identify individuals with talent. Among the economists invited by Mahalanobis were those who were very critical of the socialist principles of the second plan.
In other words, he was willing to listen to what his critics had to say, the mark of a great scholar.
Many economists today reject the approach to planning formulated by Mahalanobis but he will always be remembered for playing a vital role in putting India on the road to economic progress, and statisticians continue to profit from his contribution to statistical theory. Norton, New York and London. In the case of India, the structural change is peculiar. Usually, with development, the share of agriculture declines and the share of industry becomes dominant. At higher levels of development, the service sector contributes more to the GDP than the other two sectors.
In India, the share of agriculture in the GDP was more than 50 per cent—as we would expect for a poor country. But by the share of the service sector was This phenomenon of growing share of the service sector was accelerated in the post period this marked the onset of globalisation in the country which will be discussed in a subsequent chapter. This commercialisation of Indian agriculture not only increased the burden of high revenues on the poor farmers but also led India to face shortage of food grains, resources, technology and investment.
Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer. Ans : Yes, I do agree with the view that the traditional handicrafts industries were ruined under British rule. Ans : Under the colonial regime, basic infrastructure such as railways, ports, water transport, posts and telegraphs did develop.
However, the real motive behind this infrastructure development was not to provide basic amenities to the people but to subserve various colonial interests. Like the roads that were built primarily served the purposes of mobilizing the army within India and drawing out raw materials from the countryside to the nearest railway station or the port to send these to far away from England or other lucrative foreign destinations.
The introduction of the expensive system of electric telegraph in India, similarly, served the purpose of maintaining law and order. Ans : The industrial policy followed by the British colonial administration was solely to facilitate the upcoming modern industries in Britain. The primary motive of this de-industrialisation was to reduce Indian into a mere supplier of Britain's own flourishing industrial base and turn India into a market of Britain's machine made items.
Though during the second half of the nineteenth century, modern industry began to take root in India but its progress remained very slow. Initially, this development was confined to the setting up of cotton and jute textile mills. Subsequently, the iron and steel industries began coming up in the beginning of the twentieth century.
A few other industries in the fields of sugar, cement, paper etc. But, there was hardly any capital goods industry to help promote further industrialisation in India. Furthermore, the growth rate of the new industrial sector and its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product GDP remained very small.
Another significant drawback of the new industrial sector was the very limited area of operation of the public sector. This sector remained confined only to the railways, power generation communications. Ans : India has been an important trading nation since ancient times.
But the restrictive policies of commodity production, trade and tariff pursued the colonial government adversely affected the structure, composition and volume of India' foreign trade. India became an exporter of primary products and importer of finished consumer goods.
But this surplus came at a huge cost to the country's economy Furthermore, this export surplus did not result in any flow of gold or silver into India. Rather, this was used to make payments for the expenses incurred by an office set up by the colonial government in Britain, expenses on war. Ans : The year is regarded as the defining year to mark the demographic transition from its first to the second decisive stage.
Ans : India's Demographic conditions during the British rule depict our economy as stagnant and backward. Due to high birth rate and high death rate the population growth was stagnant. The Life Expectancy Rate was as low as 32 years while presently it is The British introduced the railways in India in and it is considered as one of their most important contributions.
The railways affected the structure of the Indian economy in two important ways. On the one hand it enabled people to undertake long distance travel and thereby break geographical and cultural barriers while, on the other hand, it fostered commercialisation of Indian agriculture which adversely affected the comparative selfsufficiency of the village economies in India.
Along with the development of roads and railways, the colonial dispensation also took measures for developing the inland trade and sea lanes. However, these measures were far from satisfactory. The inland waterways, at times, also proved uneconomical as in the case of the Coast Canal on the Orissa coast. Though the canal was built at a huge cost to the government exchequer, yet, it failed to compete with the railways, which soon traversed the region running parallel to the canal, and had to be ultimately abandoned.
The introduction of the expensive system of electric telegraph in India, similarly, served the purpose of maintaining law and order. The postal services, on the other hand, despite serving a useful public purpose, remained all through inadequate. You will learn more about the present status of various infrastructure in Chapter 8. The agricultural sector was already saddled with surplus labour and extremely low productivity.
The industrial sector was crying for modernisation, diversification, capacity building and increased public investment. Foreign trade was oriented to feed the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Infrastructure facilities, including the famed railway network, needed upgradation, expansion and public orientation. Prevalence of rampant poverty and unemployment required welfare orientation of public economic policy.
In a nutshell, the social and economic challenges before the country were enormous.
Recap An understanding of the economy before independence is necessary to know and appreciate the level of development achieved during the postindependence period. Under the colonial dispensation, the economic policies of the government were concerned more with the protection and promotion of British economic interests than with the need to develop the economic condition of the colonised country and its people.
The agricultural sector continued to experience stagnation and incremental deterioration despite the fact that the largest section of Indian population depended on it for sustenance. Lack of adequate public health facilities, occurrence of frequent natural calamities and famines pauperised the hapless Indian people and resulted in engendering high mortality rates. What was the focus of the economic policies pursued by the colonial government in India? What were the impacts of these policies?
Name some modern industries which were in operation in our country at the time of independence. What was the two-fold motive behind the systematic deindustrialisation effected by the British in pre-independent India?
The traditional handicrafts industries were ruined under the British rule. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
What objectives did the British intend to achieve through their policies of infrastructure development in India? Critically appraise some of the shortfalls of the industrial policy pursued by the British colonial administration. What do you understand by the drain of Indian wealth during the colonial period? Which is regarded as the defining year to mark the demographic transition from its first to the second decisive stage?
Indicate the volume and direction of trade at the time of independence.