PDF | On Feb 16, , Pande Vishal and others published Revised Edition of A Textbook on Pharmaceutical Engineering. PDF | Introduction Intricate modern pharmaceutical business activities Results and Discussion The model comprises engineering activities of. Major in Pharmaceutical. Engineering. Program Director: Pr Michel Baron, Asst Prof Olivier Lecoq. Objective. This program aims to produce engineers qualified.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
Pharmaceutical Engineering: principles and practices deals with unit operations and processes utilized in the production of bulk drugs, dosage Format: PDF. PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING. Mixing. Dr. Bhawna Mixing is one of the most common pharmaceutical operations. It is difficult to find a. Bachelor of Engineering with Honours in Pharmaceutical Engineering SIT's Pharmaceutical Engineering (PharmE) programme is the first in Singapore.
Wyeth USA Abbott Laboratories USA Takeda Japan Boehringer-Ingelheim Germany Schering-Plough USA Bayer Germany Features 1 May — Innovative technologies such as continuous manufacturing CM bring speed, efficiency, and agility to pharmaceutical manufacturing together with enhanced process robustness and assurance of product quality.
During CM, material is simultaneously charged and discharged into process unit operations. Similar to batch manufacturing, CM requires a comprehensive and holistic control strategy throughout the product life cycle to ensure, in a reproducible and consistent manner, the intended product Latest Articles Stop Talking about Risk, Get serious about Developing Effective Risk Management Tools 19 June OPINION We need to stop just talking about risk, and get serious about actually developing effective risk management tools The pharmaceutical industry and its regulatory agencies view risk through the very narrow lens of ICH Q9 — Quality Risk The city is known for its historic significance, professional sports teams, fine arts and delicious culinary options for Scientific evidence regarding process performance, linking process parameters and raw materials inputs to quality attributes outputs is Virtually every day, a new discovery opens up new possibilities for treating and monitoring diseases for which up to now treatment options were either limited or The workforce composition and skills requirements are also changing due to Therefore, in order to equitize the number of atoms of various elements, various species are multiplied with appropriate numbers.
This process is called balancing of a chemical equation. A chemical equation, therefore must fulfill the following conditions: For example, elementary gases like hydrogen, oxygen, etc. A chemical equation has both qualitative as well as quantitative significance. Qualitatively, a chemical equation tells us the names of the various reactants and products. Quantitatively, it expresses a The relative number of molecules of the reactants and products taking part in the reaction.
For example: Quantitatively, it conveys the following information. The chemical equation can be made more informative by incorporating the following changes: Enthalpy is the total energy associated with any system which includes its internal energy and also energy due to environmental factors such as pressure-volume conditions.
It is denoted by H. Chemical equations give the quantitative relationship between the reactants and the products. This quantitative information can be utilized to carry out variety of calculations which are required many a times, to assess the economic viability of the chemical process. Calculations based on the quantitative relationship between the reactants and the products are also referred to as Stoichiometry.
The word stoichiometry is derived from the Greek words Stoicheron meaning element and metron meaning measure. Stoichiometry is therefore, that area of chemistry and chemical technology on which determination of quantities of reactants and products of chemical reaction is based.
Chemical Energetics: Chemical reactions are always associated with energy changes. Quite often, the energy change accompanying a chemical reaction is more significant than the reaction itself. The branch of science which deals with the energy changes associated with chemical reactions is called chemical energetics. The energy changes occurring during the chemical reactions may not always appear as heat energy, but also as electrical energy, work energy and radiant energy as well.
These energy changes take place because during chemical reactions certain bonds are cleaved and certain new bonds are formed. Energy is consumed during cleavage of bonds while energy is released during the formation of bonds. Since the bond energy varies from one bond to another, the chemical reactions are always accompanied by absorption or release of energy.
Most of the time the energy is in the form of heat. Therefore, it becomes imperative that some concepts of thermodynamics may be understood. Thermodynamcis literally means conversion of heat into work and vice-versa because therm refers to heat and dynamics refers to movement.
Thermodynamics may, therefore, be defined as the branch of science which deals with the quantitative relationship between heat and other forms of energies.
When thermodynamics of chemical processes is studied, it is often referred to as chemical thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is primarily based upon three fundamental generalisations, popular as Laws of Thermodynamics.
They are: Therefore, the design of an industrial chemical reactor must satisfy the following requirements: The chemical factors: The kinetics of the reaction. The design must provide sufficient residence time for the desired reaction to proceed to the required degree of conversion.
The mass transfer factors: With hetereogeneous reactions, the reaction rate may be controlled by the rates of diffusion of the reacting species, rather than the chemical kinetics.
The heat transfer factors: The removal or addition of the heat of reaction. The safety factors: Economic factors: Minimum amount of money should be required to download and operate.
Normal operating expenses include energy input, energy removal, raw material costs, labour, etc. Energy changes can come in the form of heating or cooling, pumping, agitation, etc. The need to satisfy these are interrelated and often contradictory factors makes reactor design a complex and difficult task. However, in many instances one of the factors will predominate and will determine the choice of reactor type and the design method.
Design Procedure and Reactor Designing An industrial chemical reactor is a complex device in which heat transfer, mass transfer, diffusion and friction must be considered and it must be safe and controllable. A successful commercial unit is an economic balance of all these factors. A general procedure for reactor design is outlined below: The kinetic and thermodynamic data on the desired reaction is initially collected. Values will be needed for the rate of reaction over a range of operating conditions, for example, pressure, temperature, flow rate and catalyst concentration.
This data may be normally obtained from either laboratory or pilot plant studies. Data on physical properties is required for the design of the reactor. This may be either estimated, or collected from the literature or obtained by taking laboratory measurements.
The rate controlling mechanism which has a predominant role is then identified, for example, kinetic, mass or heat transfer. A suitable reactor type is then chosen, based on experience with similar studies or from the laboratory and pilot plant work. Selection of optimal reaction conditions is initially made in order to obtain the desired yield 6.
The size of the reactor is decided and its performance estimated. Since exact analytical solutions of the design relationship are rarely possible, semiemperical methods based on the analysis of idealized reactors are used. A preliminary mechanical design for the reactor including the vessel design, heat transfer surfaces etc. The design is optimized and validated An approximate cost of the proposed and validated design is then calculated.
In choosing the reactor conditions, and optimizing the design, the interaction of the reactor design with the other process operations must not be overlooked.
The degree of conversion of raw materials in the reactor will determine the size and the cost of any equipment needed to separate and recycle unreacted materials. In these circumstances the reactor and associated equipment must be optimized as a unit. Reactor Designing — Mathematical Models Chemical reactors are vessels designed to contain chemical reactions.
The design of a chemical reactor deals with multiple aspects of chemical engineering including mathematical modeling. A model of a reaction process is a set of data and equation that is believed to represent the performance of a specific vessel configuration mixed, plug flow, laminar, dispersed, etc.
Chemical engineers, design reactors to maximize net present value for the given reaction. Designers ensure that the reaction proceeds with the highest efficiency towards the desired output product, producing the highest yield of product.
The equations used in mathematical modeling include the stoichiometric relations, rate equations, heat and material balances and auxiliary relations such as those of mass transfer, pressure variation, residence time distribution, etc. Correlations of heat and mass — transfer rates are fairly well developed and can be incorporated in models of a reaction process, but the chemical rate data must be determined individually.
Since equipments are now widely available to obtain such data, hence an initial exploratory work can be carried out. Once fundamental data is obtained, the goal is to develop a mathematical model of the process, which may be further utilized to explore possibilities such as product selectivity, start-up and shut down behaviour, vessel configuration, temperature, pressure and conversion profiles, etc.
Any mathematical model has two components, the symbols in which it is expressed and their relationship to the quantities in the real world and the equations that link the symbols and through which the values of certain variables are computed. These two elements normally co- evolve, but they are often separated for the sake of presentation into the parameter and variable definitions and their equations.
First a mechanism is assumed and then a model is designed accordingly, for example, whether the reaction is steady or unsteady, completely mixed, or plug flow or laminar or with dispersion or with bypass or recycle or dead space, etc.
The model can be used to find the performance under various conditions, or its parameters can be evaluated from experimental data. Basic Elements of Reactor Designing Reactions are carried out as batches or with continuous streams through a vessel.
There are two main basic vessel types, viz. Transient state is a state in which the key process variables like residence time, volume, temperature, pressure or concentration of chemical species, etc. Such a situation generally arises when either the reactor is downloadd new or is brought back in operation after maintenance or inoperation. Chemical reactors may be designed keeping in view the various process variables. Key process variables include: The residence time distribution RTD of a chemical reactor or vessel is a description of the time that different fluid elements spend inside the reactor.
The concept was first proposed by MacMullin and Weber in , but was not used extensively until P.
Danckwerts analyzed a number of important RTDs in RTD will vary from one reactor type to another. For example, an ideal plug flow reactor has a fixed residence time. Flow reactors are distinguished by the degree of mixing of successive inputs. The ideal situations are 1 Complete mixing: Deviations may be detected with RTDs obtained with the aid of tracer tests.
Thus, a stirred tank may be assumed completely mixed in the vicinity of the impeller or a plug flow near outlet. Heat Transfer Temperature affects rates of reaction, degradation of catalysts and equilibrium conversion. Many reactors with fixed beds of catalysts pellets have divided beds, with heat transfer between the individual sections.
Such units can take advantage of initial high rates at high temperatures and higher equilibrium conversions at lower temperatures. Since reactors come in a variety of configurations with a variety of operating modes and may handle mixed phases, the design of provisions for temperature control draws on a large body of heat transfer theory and data.
Mass Balance A mass balance also called a material balance is an accounting of material entering and leaving a system7.
Fundamental to the balance is the conservation of mass principle, i. Mass balances are used, for example, to design chemical reactors, analyse alternative processes to produce chemicals, in pollution dispersion models, etc.
In environmental monitoring the term budget calculations is used to describe mass balance equations where they are used to evaluate the monitoring data comparing input and output, etc. The dynamic energy budget theory for metabolic organisation makes explicit use of time, mass, and energy balances. The mass that enters a system must conservation of mass principle either leave the system or accumulate within the system, i.
Mass balances are often developed for total mass crossing the boundaries of a system, but they can also focus on one element e. An integral mass balance is a black box approach and focus on the overall behaviour of a system whereas a differential mass balances focuses on mechanisms within the system which in turn affect the overall behavior. Integral Mass Balance is made by initially identifying the system boundaries, that is, how the system is connected to the rest of the world and how the rest of the world influences the system.
For example, for a tank reactor the walls of the tank are the system boundaries and the outer world influences the system through the inlet and outleet. Differential mass balance is described by assuming the interior of the systems, for example, a perfectly mixed homogeneous system.
Based on these basic descriptions of the system and its boundaries, reactor models are described.