Principles of Geotechnical Engineering+Solution manual by Braja M. Das 7th Ed. Jakik Jakik. CONVERSION FACTORS FROM ENGLISH TO SI UNITS Length: 1. Braja M. Das - Principles of Geotechnical Engineering (, CL-Engineering). pdf. Libunelo Rahmat. Principles of Geotechnical Engineering FIFTH EDITION. Principles of Geotechnical Engineering,. Eighth Edition, SI. Braja M. Das and Khaled Sobhan. Publisher, Global Engineering: Christopher M. Shortt.
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Geotechnical Engineering by Braja M. Das 5th Edition [pdf] Category: Books As far as definition of soil is concerned soil may be defined in. Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 7th Edition. Braja M. Das. Executive Director, Global Publishing Program: Chris Carson. ISBN: OCLC Number: Description: 1 online resource. Contents: goudzwaard.info
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Principles of geotechnical engineering Author: Braja M Das Publisher: Stamford, CT: Eighth edition View all editions and formats Rating: Subjects Soil mechanics.
Geotechnical engineering. Also, the unit weight of clean dry sand see Chapter 3 and ordi- nary earth were recommended to be No test results on clay were reported. In , Bernard Forest de Beli- dor — published a textbook for military and civil engineers in France.
He also specified a soil classification system in the manner shown in the following table. See Chap- ters 3 and 4.
See Chapter Mayniel in In the preclassical period, practi- cally all theoretical considerations used in calculating lateral earth pressure on re- taining walls were based on an arbitrarily based failure surface in soil.
In his famous paper presented in , French scientist Charles Augustin Coulomb — used the principles of calculus for maxima and minima to determine the true posi- tion of the sliding surface in soil behind a retaining wall see Chapter In this analysis, Coulomb used the laws of friction and cohesion for solid bodies.
These special cases related to inclined backfills and backfills supporting surcharge. Pon- celet was also the first to use the symbol f for soil friction angle see Chapter He also provided the first ultimate bearing-capacity theory for shallow foundations see Chapter In Alexandre Collin — , an engineer, provided the details for deep slips in clay slopes, cutting, and embankments see Chapter Collin theorized that in all cases the failure takes place when the mobilized cohesion exceeds the existing cohesion of the soil.
He also observed that the actual failure sur- faces could be approximated as arcs of cycloids. The end of Phase I of the classical soil mechanics period is generally marked by the year of the first publication by William John Macquorn Rankine — , a professor of civil engineering at the University of Glasgow.
This study pro- vided a notable theory on earth pressure and equilibrium of earth masses see Chapter One of the earliest and most important publications is one by French engineer Henri Philibert Gaspard Darcy — In , he published a study on the permeability of sand filters see Chapter 6.
Based on those tests, Darcy de- fined the term coefficient of permeability or hydraulic conductivity of soil, a very useful parameter in geotechnical engineering to this day. Sir George Howard Darwin — , a professor of astronomy, conducted laboratory tests to determine the overturning moment on a hinged wall retaining sand in loose and dense states of compaction. Another noteworthy contribution, which was published in by Joseph Valentin Boussinesq — , was the develop- ment of the theory of stress distribution under loaded bearing areas in a homoge- neous, semiinfinite, elastic, and isotropic medium see Chapter 9.
In , Osborne Reynolds — demonstrated the phenomenon of dilatency in sand. The most notable publications are given in Table 1.
Karl Ter- zaghi is known as the father of modern soil mechanics, and rightfully so. Terzaghi Figure 1. In he graduated from the Technische Hoch- schule in Graz, Austria, with an undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering. After graduation he served one year in the Austrian army. Following his army ser- vice, Terzaghi studied one more year, concentrating on geological subjects. In Janu- ary , he received the degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences from his alma mater in Graz. In , he accepted a teaching position at the Imperial School of Engineers in Istanbul.
There he began his research work on the behavior of soils and settlement of clays see Chapter 10 and on the failure due to piping in sand under dams see Chapter 8. The publication Erdbaumechanik is primarily the result of this research. Peck Technology, where he worked until During that time, he became recognized as the leader of the new branch of civil engineering called soil mechanics.
In October , he returned to Europe to accept a professorship at the Technical University of Vienna, which soon became the nucleus for civil engineers interested in soil me- chanics. In , he returned to the United States to become a professor at Harvard University. It was through the inspiration and guidance of Terzaghi over the preceding quarter-century that papers were brought to that conference covering a wide range of topics, such as shear strength Chapter 11 , effective stress Chapter 8 , in situ testing Chapter 17 , Dutch cone penetrometer Chapter 17 , centrifuge test- ing, consolidation settlement Chapter 10 , elastic stress distribution Chapter 9 , preloading for soil improvement, frost action, expansive clays, arching theory of earth pressure, soil dynamics, and earthquakes.
Peck was the guiding spirit in the development of soil mechanics and geotechnical engi- neering throughout the world. To that effect, in , Ralph Peck Figure 1. Within the next few years he would be engaged on projects on every continent save Australia and Antarctica.
Bishop and B. Since the early days, the profession of geotechnical engineering has come a long way and has matured.
It is now an established branch of civil engineering, and thou- sands of civil engineers declare geotechnical engineering to be their preferred area of speciality. These international conferences have been instrumental for exchange of information regarding new developments and on- going research activities in geotechnical engineering.
Table 1. The names of these technical committees are given in Table 1. Terzaghi U. Skempton U. Casagrande U. Bjerrum Norway — R. Peck U. Kerisel France — M. Fukuoka Japan — V. Broms Singapore — N. Morgenstern Canada — M. Jamiolkowski Italy — K. Ishihara Japan — W. Van Impe Belgium Table 1. Berlin, Vol. BELL, A. Proceeding of Institute of Civil Engineers, Vol. IV, — Cailleau, Paris. Personal communication. Balkema, 3 — Colas, Paris. PECK, R. Balkema, — Balkema, 95 — Erdbaumechanik auf Bodenphysikalisher Grundlage, Deuticke, Vienna.
Origin of Soil and Grain Size I n g c n e r a l. On thc basisol their ntttclcol'origin, rocks car'rbc cliviclecl into three basictypes: F igurc 2. Al'ter cjection by either,Ttssure erttption or vttlt. S o m e t i m e sm a g m a ceiisesits mobility below thc carthlssurlacc and cclolsto form intrusiveigneousrocks that are calledplutons. Intrusive rocks krrmeclin the past may be exposcdat the sur- face as a result of the continuous processo1'erosionof the materials that once cov- cred them.
Af- ter conductingseverallaboratory tests,Bowen was ablc to cxplain the relation of the rate of magma cooling to the formation of different types of rock. ReactionScries Composition Olivine Mg. Fe ,SiOa Augite Ca.
Na Mg. Fc, Al Al. Si2Oo Hornblende Cornplcx i'erromagnesiansilicateof Ca. Mechanical weatheringmay be causedby the expansion and contraction of rclcksfrcn. Frequently,water seepsinto the pores and existing cracksin rocks. As the tempcrature drops, the watcr freezcs: The pressureex- erted by ice becauseof volume cxpansionis str"clng cnough to break down even large rocks.
Other physicalagentsthat hclp disintesratcrocks arc glacicr ice. Thc wetrtheringprocessis not limited to igneousrocks. Thus, from the precedingbrief discussion,we can seehow the weatheringpro- cesschangesscllidrock massesinto smaller fragmentsof various sizesthat can range from large boulders to very small clay particlcs.
Uncemented aggregatesof these small grains in various proportions form different types of soil. There are three important clay minerals: We discussthese clav minerals later in this chapter. Transportation of Weatheri ng Products The products of weathering may stay in the same place or may be moved to other placesby ice, water. The soils formed by the weatheredproducts at their place of origin are called residual srtils.
An important characteristicof residualsoil is the gradation of particle size. Fine-grainedsoil is found at the surface,and the grain sizeincreaseswith depth.
At greatcr depths,angular rock fragmentsmay also be founcl. The transported soilsmay be clitssifiedinto severalgroups,dependingon their m o d e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o na n d d e p o s i t i o n: Gluciul soil. Alluviul soil. Lourstrine soils- formed by deposition in quict lakes 4. Murine soils- formcd by clcpositionin the scas 5. They fill the spacesbelween particles and form sedimentary rock.
Rocks formed in this way are called tletrital. Sedimentary rock can also bc formed by chemical processes. Limestone, chalk, dolomite, gyp- sum, anhydrite, and others belong to this category. Limestone is formed mostly of calcium carbonate that originates from calcite deposited either by organismsor by an inorganic process. Dolomite is calcium magnesiumcarbonateIcaMg coj 2]. It is fbrmed either by the chemical deposition of mixed carbonatesor by the reaction of magnesiumin water with limestone.
Gypsum and anhydrite result from the precipi- tation of soluble CaSoa becauseof evaporation of ocean water. They belong to a class of rocks generally referred to as evaporircs. Rock salt Nacl is another ex- ample of an evaporite that originatesfrom the salt depositsof seawater.
Sedimentaryrock may undergo weathering to form sedimentsor may be sub- jected to the processof metamrtrphismto become metamorphic rock. Metamorphic Rock Metamorphi. Gran- ite, diorite, and gabbro become gneissesby high-grademetamorphism. Shalesand mudstones are transformed into slatesand phyllites by low-grade metamorphism. Schists are a type of metamorphic rock with well-foliated texture and visible flakes of platy and micaceousminerals.
Marble is formed from calcite and dolomite by recrystallization. The mineral grainsin marble are larger than thosepresentin the original rock. Quartzite is a meta- morphic rock formed from quartz-rich sandstones.
Silica enters into the void spaces between the quartz and sand grains and acts as a cementing agent. Quartzite is one of the hardestrocks. Under extreme heat and pressure,metamorphic rocks may melt to form magma, and the cycle is repcated. To describesoils by their particle size, sevcral organizations have developcd particle-size classifications. Table 2. Army Corps of Engineers and U. Bureau of Reclamation. In this table, thc MIT systemis presentedfor illustra- tion purposesonly.
This systemis important in the history of the developmentof the size limits of particles present in soils; howcver,the Unified Soil ClassificationSys- tem is now almost universallyacceptecland has been adopted by the American So- ciety for Testing and Materials ASTM.
Gravals are picces of rocks with occasionalparticles of quartz, feldspar, and gther minerals. Sand particlesare murdcof mostly clnrLz and feldspar. Other mineral Table 2. Departmentof Agriculture 2 to 0. Army Corpsof Engineers, U. Sieveopeningsof 4. SeeTable 2. Cloys are mostly flake-shapedmicroscopicand submtroscopic particles of mica, clay minerals,and other minerals.
As shown in Table 2. Particlcsclassifiedas clzryon the basisof their size may not neccssarilycontain clay mincrals. Clays have bcen defined as thosc particles ,.
Non- clay soils cerncontain particlcs of quartz. Hence, it is appropriate for soil particle, ,11ull", than 2 microns 2 pm. This is also called a gibbsitcsheat- Figure 2. T h i s m c a n st h a t t h e t o p o x y g e na t o m of each tetrahedral unit has a negativechzrrgcof one to be counterbalanced. Of the three importzrntclay mincrals, kaolinita consistsof repeating layers of elemental silica-gibbsitcshectsin a 1: I lattice as shown in Figures2.
Each layer is about7. Thc lerycrsarc held togerherby hydrogen bonding. Kaolin- ite occursas platele-ts, each with a lateral dimension of to 20,A and a thick- nessof to A.
The surface area per unit mass is defined as sp'ecificsur.
The illite layersare bonded by potassiumions. The negativechargeto balancethe potas- sium ions comesfrom the substitutionof aluminum for ro-" rili. I form is known as isrtmorphous substitLrlion. Montnnrillonite has a structure. See Figures2. Particlesof montmorillonite have lateral dimensionsof ro A and thicknessesof 10 to 50 A. The s eci6; surfaceis about m2is. Besideskaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, other common clay mineralsgen- erally found are chlorite, halloysite,vermiculite, and attapulqite.
This is the re- sult both of isomorphoussubstitution and of a brcak in continuity of the structure at its edges. Larger negativc chargcs are derived from larger specificsurfaces.
Some positivelycharged sitesalso occur at the edgesof the particles. A list of the recipro- cal of the averagesurfacedensitiesof the negativechargeson the surfaceso[ some clav minerals follows Yong and Warkentin, When water is added to clay, these cations and a few anions float around the clay particles. This configuration is referred to as a diffuse double layer Figure 2. The cation concentration decreaseswith the distance from the surface of the particle Figure 2.
Water molecules are polar. Hydrogen atoms are not axisymmetric around an oxygen atom; instead,they occur at a bonded angle of ' Figure 2. As a result, a water molecule has a positive charge at one side and a negative charge at the other side.
It is known as a dipole.