Race Car Engineering and Mechanics [Paul Van Valkenburgh] on goudzwaard.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A comprehensive guide on how to tune. RaceCar Engineering Janpdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Fundamentals Fluid Mechanics of &Motorsport • Aerodynamics. Subscribe to Racecar Engineering– find the best o ers online .. have to find mechanics with smaller hands,' Goss jokes. It is a problem not.
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PDF | Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, Article (PDF Available) in Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Department of Aerospace Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego. mechanics course to teach mechanical engineering students about the principles instrumented Legends-class race car in a capstone mechanical engineering. aspects of motorsport engineering, from the engine and powertrain know to convert your road car into a race car, items like Mechanics.
F1 Red Bull RB15 testing update. F1 Ferrari SF90 testing update. Tech Explained. F1 S-duct The F1 S-duct is a clever aerodynamic trick that has been on Formula 1 cars since when Sauber introduced it. However, the Motorsport Regulations. Tech Explained Flow viz. Tech Explained F1 Aerodynamic Cooling. Thoughts from Daytona It's fair to say that the Rolex 24 at Daytona was an astonishing race.
For the first time in history the Macau World Rallycross Speedmachine. Cottonballs blog: Reality check. Cranfield University Blog: So we then had to look and even the power units, which are in specification for the entire season. But then, at what we are working on for that could reported to once again be an improvement on as the festive season approached in , it be accelerated into this year. It was a major their predecessors. With stable rules, and was announced that manufacturers would be headache for the programme management a reduced token allowance, the unit is allowed to develop the power units during the people.
How do you introduce these updates? Indeed, how do you track test it when you have was to the PUA, but it of course will not be no track testing? Apparently installation differences. It does when I received the news.
It did not have any including piston crown and some associated not help crank power at all, but it does improve impact on us to start off with. We already had components.
After power unit did not go as smoothly as the not failing in a single race, Cowell reveals that about a 30 minute study of what the change team had hoped. But on to 50 per cent perhaps Cowell and his team they were just not too sure what; and indeed Saturday morning at Monza we had some are doing more than just clearing the trees, not too sure how.
Eventually we opted to roll back to an rapidly closing the gap to the three pointed star. We simply were not set up for doing in old unit, we knew it was a risk. The power unit, which that is what was said about the PUA. Renvale Harnessing Renvale are a leader in electrical harness design and manufacture with its roots dating back to and 13 F1 world championships won over the years using our systems. We are specialists in full system design, manufacture and support.
Visit our UK online shop at www. That had a profound effect on Spring brake our development and our strategy going forward. It gave us performance in that says.
Ferrari and Red Bull. Come the Spanish Grand Prix in May. To where we are from where we started However. It further during the season. We did struggle a bit trying to technical director Andrew Green.
Nico Hulkenberg and Sergio Perez. Force India It took a big chunk out of what would have been introduced a minor change by moving the brake development time. It was an important direction for flounder against more moneyed opposition. The the season. While the alteration did not deliver significant everything and find our feet again.
It introduced the term gain and we knew we needed the bigger first iteration of its spec VJM08 at the second tunnel. By no means is it a packaging exercise and trying to work with retained the same chassis and front suspension. Beginning as an attempt Formula 1 technical regulations if they are the limit and it also helps preserve the tyres. One of the more intriguing elements of the subjected to crash tests.
Next year both drivers will use lighter chassis Grand Prix onward. These panels are crucial to the Vented noses are not permissible in the consistency. If you stood in front of the car new concepts in those areas. Green says there was never any new-found sense of direction. Unusually The back end of the car stripped down to its bones with heat shields and some underbody parts the torsion bars are mounted vertically on top of the chassis behind third element remaining in place.
VJM08B is its nose cone. We determined the shorter nose. For over 30 years. Alcon constantly push the boundaries on caliper. So whether you compete off-road or on the track.
Contact us today to see how Alcon can help with your brake or clutch requirements. Alcon have been supplying winning solutions to competitors in series ranging from F1 to grassroots motorsport and everything in between. With the gearbox parameters we had to overcome and we are quite well the car in pre-season testing at least. The geometry is not car. Green contends has to curve round.
Unusually for the not in control of at all. We have a good handle One notable feature of the VJM08B has rear of the car from the rear bulkhead of the on how to get around the problems. Although Green notes the rear axle centre-line is fixed to a pre- that the uprights themselves did not change determined outlay.
As a privateer team. It allows us to never made any changes to it after that. Force India uses Despite these difficulties. There is little doubt that and that it might not necessarily be the worst hole. Fit AP Racing brakes and clutches for ultimate performance. We apply this same approach to our whole product range as we constantly explore new materials. That caught the front. The B-spec Force India has certainly delivered on its initial promise 36 www. Moving the caliper minor change by moving brake calipers from ahead of the front axle to behind it see right served as an alternative way of ducting the air through the brake duct The more conventional nose with which Force India started the season.
Now that we have the data. Again Green pointed to the kerbs consolidate its efforts from this year. Green being the main issue. It was kerb If nothing else.
Discovering an issue forward. A and. The two things were very specific to that are looking at another significant step following a spin exiting Turn During practice Perez crashed heavily us out.
While the introduction of the B-spec has gone well. Perez even introduced. The lower weight car. Bruno Famin. That is not very in Racecar Engineering V24N After that. It concept throughout the car. Yet for the version. P eugeot returned to rallying in the two-door coupe concept. These replace the aluminium two- piece wheels from Then the turbo pressure is limited not by rule. What we validated there was the Modifying tubular chassis was a relatively simple affair as it is easier than working on carbon.
That meant poor driveability at low speeds. They were the key points. We also had a better engine in terms of driveability. The roof-mounted air-intake has been the subject of aero development engine improved a lot. These improvements were gradually applied and assessed through a series of tests.
The new car has been steadily developed since the first version finished the Dakar Rally in Buenos Aires in January. The low revs performance of the car was very bad. The car is also lighter than version as the team made uses of lessons learnt to redesign some parts monobloc [one-piece]. Carlos Sainz and Cyril Despres. We worked a lot on driveability.
Then you have to limit yourself in terms of turbo pressure if you want the pistons to survive. We are better now. This was essentially the model with a number of development parts for added. SHOW Give us your requirements and we will find a high-performance solution. Our commitment to engineering precision performance cranks. I feel optimistic. You really cannot compare our state of Le Mans programme. Cost control measures completely ready for the Dakar either.
Famin hopes that the with instant delivery worldwide step forward from its predecessor. March The areas running really well. As a result. You can feel the difference in with free postage the engine as well: The tests we have carried out up to now. The Spaniard added: To order. Racecar Engineering publication 25 years as the leading motorsport technology 8 change that we have made on our car: Special Overseas and Credit Card rates also available 42 www.
This is not the first car to be built to this rule book was the Evora was the best solution. European car like a GT3. Making it all work 44 www. As the Evora in production car form laid up. Yet while Dome for front-engined. This approach cuts production costs the opportunities for Japanese suppliers and is mid-engined then the new GT car would significantly. The basic dimensions of our car are the Japanese motorsport industry that the also allowed to compete.
The Cars Tokai team GT version. The commercial and engineering reasons the handles and tail lamps. Unlike the Shiden. Under this new rulebook. But with the level of engineering in this particular racecar it can only be just around the corner was a very difficult challenge. Racing heart While with the production Evora the rear end houses a transversely mounted 3.
ECU and other parts. It had some allowances for a midship layout so we did not have to do a totally new chassis like Honda in GT The Lotus Evora is the first mid-engined MC racecar transmission. We selected Ohlins TTR there is a plan to allow more freedom in future. This is again our previous results using those products. The results were encouraging and a secret. The Evora was seemingly on the way to a victory the level of competition substantially. This has the is most proud of is its aerodynamic package.
What and has yet to score a class win. There have been suggestions that pace I am satisfied. Clutch exhaust exits. Carbon tub is made using male mould on to which pre-preg sheets are laid up aerodynamically.
I hope Tyres a low pressure area behind the exhaust exits we will fix both over the winter. I suspect that it is the most achieved with the Evora so far. The car has one stand-out characteristic are relishing the challenge. Despite not winning a race in its debut season Conventional double wishbone system But like that car is very low drag for a good Watanabe is happy with what has been Rear suspension level of downforce.
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It worked very well cavitation. I guess faster turns. On the rear starts. I for the volume change inside the unit as the Looking at images of IRS FWD hatches have tried going back to stock dampers but it shaft moves in and out. Does any of that apply here? If that forces me to soften off the they do not push back out. To my mind they would be To try to combat my understeer I even tried and allows the unit to damp in both directions able to single-wheel much earlier than my car.
Questioner in tight hence short-duration turns. But it Stiffer rear springs will increase my rear roll Regarding dampers. The Konis and all non-pressurised governs how much the inside rear will droop?
The outer compartment has some oil and Lift is happening in tighter corners only The consultant some non-pressurised air in it. They use is less than when the car is in an uphill hairpin.
Can you The reason I asked about dampers is that can which piggy backs the torsion beam get a larger diameter rear bar. I have but have not fitted yet some with front and rear anti-roll bars I was already road surface appeared to have had to droop eccentric bolts that will allow me to shift each using the rear Konis.
I only briefly swapped a long way before it could have detached. The pictures also show that the do last between seconds. The inside rear which was well clear of the end. They baulked more at my rear shock tower beam torsionally stiffen the bar? Or could it be The car feels good in those corners and gets cross brace. Almost all into it through a valve at the bottom of the do so much in faster corners? What setting are you inner cylinder called the foot valve.
Apart from the rear bar cornering. The rear Konis are oil damped. I use very differently in terms of building forces recommendation assuming their fronts OEM GTI springs that are 15mm lower than on the outside wheel when single wheeling were set to one turn out from minimum.
This permits the full showed that their inside rear only had small was worse. The difference is that they use a The extra rear grip and more equal rear load would have thought would assist turn in and trapped volume of pressurised gas to allow sharing is exacerbating power-on understeer. Could welding I have seen pictures of my car coming out rear bar was fitted because it fits with the class.
I remember you they are non-pressurised then. So I can uprate springs. My non-adjustable front anti-roll bars and make geometry changes. Going to the stiff have a question for him. If I do add more rear elastic roll resistance with springs rather than more bar. The VW twist beam is almost a pure car rides bumps well enough now it would be trailing arm system with a built-in anti-roll bar.
A little per cent camber recovery in roll and a roll the rear to squat. In some cases the roll centre would be at bushing height. If anything. Consultant better to increase rear roll resistance instead.
So changing the rear ride height However. Well if there is not a gross damping mismatch action. If the beam were Lowering just the rear will increase caster. If you had stiffer damping in the rear then that would In addition to the geometric roll resistance being reduced. The reduction in camber recovery and heat treat by hardening to full hard by heating have a beam axle suspension.
If the Changing rear ride height with that system smooth surfaces. If you retain them and get front Konis as soon as I adjust diagonal percentage. I do have provision on my ride height has very little effect on geometric front anti-roll bar to go to a softer setting. USA independent suspension. You could just reduce front anti-roll ordinary beam axles.
If I do lower the rear. I will explore a stiffer A: Mark Ortiz before is that droop limiting devices work rear anti-roll bar like you advised.
Stiffness varies centre at about 25 per cent the height of the rising. Thus lowered and hardness to your existing bar. You download in line with the bushings. Drill holes as needed. Here Mark answers your anti-lift in braking.
If so. Lowering both ends a it in the normalised or annealed condition. This takes a coil out of immediately following a left one or vice versa. The front is at OEM ride height that has the lower control arms and steering arms virtually horizontal to the ground. That would geometric roll resistance can be addressed and quenching. The twist beam provides about 25 rearward load transfer. These can be used corner hard or hit big one-wheel bumps.
Rear can afford them. I assume because chassis setup and handling queries. If you Generally. That system would have no similar amount will have little effect on caster. If the beam were on the axle line. Going bushings. I was referring to my rear end will roughly be a quarter of the 50 www. The most common about a quarter of an inch. You also get and the readings on your wheel scales will be by having the Konis in the rear. DCE can also provide hardware for: United Kingdom Head Office Tel: The future of fire suppression is here Once in a generation comes a breakthrough in race technology as important as our new Zero fire suppression system: USA Tel: Theful ly seal edhousi ngandMI L- Specconnectors ensurethehi ghestl evelofr eli abi li ty.
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Ref ined. By adding and also releasing the throttle momentarily and this suggests that the racecar is oversteering slightly the throttle position and steering angle to the same JANUARY www. With this in mind. This can usually be found in the channel settings. This also has the auxiliary function of setting a datum for your channel in case you should need it be triggered.
Alarms When looking at a screen that is full of data channels. Lap Segments A good indication of driver or car performance can be found from a lap-by-lap comparison of values at specific positions on the track. Most software packages provide the ability to set alarm conditions for channels which help you monitor them easily. This has the auxiliary function of setting a datum for your channel should you need it Figure 1.
What this will also do is provide you with an Figure 1: Setting an alarm will also provide you with an indicator on your trace as to where the alarm will be indicator on your trace as to where the alarm will triggered.
This can be made distinguishable by utilising an alarm to set a reference point. It can sometimes be difficult to spot exactly where the angle passes through zero. Setting your plot to only display the channel data from this segment will give you a close-up which Figure 2: Here it can be seen that during the exit part of the corner the driver is making steering corrections will really help to speed up this process.
Certain channels. In Figure 3. At a first glance the traces may appear to match up. Both of these possibilities will be easy to spot on the trace by identifying where the change of direction of the steer angle and the re-application of the throttle occur in comparison to each other.
Typically with this example. As a data engineer. This is a good indication of a healthy car. Here you can see a very strong correlation due to the narrow grouping of data points. By carefully examining the vertical acceleration across different laps it is possible to identify a noticeable bump or hole in the track that produces a small spike in the trace. This has resulted in the data being skewed by approximately five metres skewed as the angular velocity of the wheel that is used to produce the distance value does not match the true distance travelled during these periods.
This would therefore show a dispersion of data points underneath the trend line in the area highlighted Figure 5. This has resulted in the data being skewed by approximately five metres. In Figure 2 you can see that during the exit of the corner the driver makes steering corrections and releases the throttle momentarily.
Manually aligning the two traces at this spike by applying an offset to one dataset will ensure that the data you are looking at is at the exact same track position for both datasets. This would show a dispersion of data points underneath the trend line in the area highlighted Email: Figure 4: An X-Y plot of oil pressure against rpm. Produced in association with Cosworth Figure 5: The vertical acceleration.
Data alignment When comparing data from different drivers and outings. Towards the end of the lap the distance channel has become offset from the other dataset due to lock-ups and wheel spin. Figure 4 below is an X-Y plot of oil pressure against rpm. A performance issue could be spotted here if the data points had a greater spread. When the car experiences wheelspin or a Figure 3: At the end of the lap the distance channel has become offset from the other dataset due to lock-up.
Here you can clearly see a very strong correlation due Data Correlation to the narrow grouping of data points. Mezzo takes pride in handling the toughest thermal management problems. Mezzo is now an approved supplier of radiators for IndyCar.
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And finally. The reduction in drag also meant Combinations of single and twin front dive absolute rather than relative.
Perhaps the most important conclusion www. On track the car will with dive planes present we saw an increase yaw angles two-degree and four-degree be dynamically moving throughout the range in downforce at both ends of the car.
Thanks to all at Ginetta for their cooperation and significant coefficient or. Given that the type of aerodynamic changes we saw here will in balance to the rear. But have influenced all these data. In these pages he uses data from MIRA to changes with and without the dive planes. Motorsport Zytek LMP2. Zytek and the Ginetta featured broadly similar happen dynamically. For expediency just two yaw and rear downforce that produced a small angles were run.
The necessary for a new composite-bodied car to appreciate the difficulty of driving the cars target improvement area is a unique aero be competitive with both older cars as well as while the fans get to watch their struggles in parameter to stock cars that primarily turn a rival series.
With increased will be over a year into developing the next the sideforce investigation. Drivers and hopefully take it to the next level. Late in the chassis response to changes. This involved attempting to control racecars while racing left: If we froze the car at any point Axle skew is what leads to the appearance have been strange interactions between trucks in the centre of the corner.
If we walked on to the track and straight. At a In speaking with the teams who ran the cars. The front and rear split of right with sideforce. The amazing revelation leads to sideforce and yaw moment playing the car competitive.
With their long truck balancing the car for almost half of the lap. Avoiding pushed our hand into the left rear quarter panel.
For those outside of the stock car of throttle modulation on corner exit can last world. The Darlington Sprint Cup counter featured retro liveries on many cars. Since Sprint Cup cars have in excess noticeably under aero loading. The driver is balancing given the demands of the three main cornering situations. CFD and track testing has shown the car in cornering at the limit for several phases.
Typical spring mechanical cornering ability is being used up. Total sideforce magnitude variation of trailing car versus lead car. A car could be neutral at the centre of that body lift on the greenhouse is reduced by seconds. Sideforce variations in traffic appear to be quite substantial Figure 2.
Likewise for pushing our hand on downforce. This of the car. It is not transmitted through the tyres so that there is nothing left to accommodate means that if the car is neutral throughout the like downforce. The actual per cent for lap after lap. Lateral force spring rate of the rear axle is complicated by A further thought exercise is to think of the The reality is that this condition is unlikely bump stops.
But transmitted to the contact patch of the tyre is Sideforce has been an integral part of stock car aerodynamics for at least the last decade. This shows the rear sideforce magnitude variation of a trailing car compared to its isolated state fashion. The main question is.
Because of its position deliberately designed to be able to remove the predictability returns. The black trace represents the baseline run while the red trace is the car with reduced sideforce Table 1: More tellingly.
At almost any overall starting were we to adjust the car to this new condition. I be quite substantial. The car was leads to a growing gap to the car in front until except on the splitter. The only option height or traffic conditions. One thing for certain is that there Recently.
Downforce is the biggest number. Figure 3. Quite simply. The rapid transient very specific that the car was constantly loose lbf or current specification lbf. A lbf rear holding downforce to a similar level to the moment of the car. The biggest thing we learnt from these sensitivity to both. This is a massive loss in lap time At Kentucky and Darlington. Sideforce variation in traffic appears to one tenth of second lap time lost based on our In the October issue of Racecar Engineering.
Data for the fastest lap of package was utilised and both races were a tests at Kansas Speedway to assess real-world each of the configurations is shown in Figure 3. This seems to be a latency that is difficult to quantify.
Drivers decrease lap time on track in a predictable Of course the argument can be made that. But in traffic conditions only added 1in more spoiler and a Gurney yields a 0. The results. This has a corresponding impact two separate runs. On track.
That is for certain. Table 1 is actual wind tunnel data from the development work on the High Drag package. The effect of adding so much drag to the spoiler at the rear of the car. Teams discovered the key to speed on track was sideforce rather than downforce. We then directly compared the two packages.
The honest answer is that the effect of sideforce and yaw moment had never been studied in such a stark comparison.
The first teams to discover this had a distinct advantage. After several months of CFD and design. While downforce is 30 per cent greater with the High Drag package. By the end of the COT era. This led to an increase in yaw moment of per cent when compared with the same cars in the low downforce configuration.
When the Generation 6 Cup car was being developed. Yaw and disorder There are two culprits left that reared their X-3 test car at the Windshear wind tunnel. Lack of tail offset substantially decreases yaw moment and overall sideforce Racing to build and test a prototype car dubbed 64 www.
So we can safely eliminate downforce as being the culprit. It is instead shifted to the right. The cars were impounded after the Kentucky race.
The obvious question is. And build in the best in precision data acquisition capabilities. Add a mph rolling road. We created a new standard in aerodynamics. When we We created a new standard in aerodynamics. It also means The lack of tail offset and corresponding spoiler spinning out when entering a left hand turn. The when it crosses the horizontal axis.
The car is capable of running in both Another interesting thing learnt from the degrees. With a successful first track test at Kansas. These include further body and underbody changes meant to reduce the sideforce level and tune the downforce upper limit to around lbf.
Most cars with the intermediate the standard tail offset configuration and a Kansas test was the effect of yaw moment track package have a crossover point in excess symmetrical rear section. The yaw moment of the test car is plotted in Figure 5. While this practice had been reined in with tighter suspension regulations. This is important because it means to other recent rules packages in Figure 4. This is precisely what we get with a low crossover point.
While the Region other cars at the event will not be of the same specification as the X The team will visit Homestead-Miami during the Goodyear tyre test scheduled for mid-December to evaluate these changes in isolation.
Yaw moment and crossover point comparison showing the difference between car and the X-3 test vehicle have ever put on a race track. Along with reduced and what is referred to as the crossover point. The original design target Figure 4. This allows an arcing a raised splitter centre section. A car with a low crossover point eliminates the effectiveness of this tactic completely.
An interesting thing to note is that the preferred on-track configuration by drivers Austin Dillon and Bobby Labonte featured the car with a crossover point in this region. Market Leading Manufacturers of Control cables for: The bulk had ChassisSim fingerprints all over them.
This principle is illustrated in To kick this discussion off. ChassisSim in particular. To illustrate this to a race engineering tool. I am terrified at what I am seeing out principle in motor racing: Anything else is just total rubbish. The focus of this article will be to for me to say. Believe it or not this is the of this article is how to go about using racecar used ChassisSim on.
We can see this for the throttle. I realise. Simulation will give some of the same ground. Before we discuss the magic sauce. This is the cook book. In consider the comparison to actual and simulated of the literature about racecar simulation. The techniques we calculations. Now that we have covered all that. A really handy party trick is to have known inertias for bits like engines. That can come later. Then all you need to do to calculate the relevant moments of inertia is to use the parallel axis theorem.
This will allow you to adjust your inertias to suit. This will rubbish. The great thing about Equation 2 is that you can add all this up in a spreadsheet and update your simulation package accordingly. This shows a comparison between the actual data and the simulated data for an Australian V8 Supercar any blind traps as you start changing wheelbases and tracks. These are What we have here is the following: To quantify this we have Equation 1.
This is presented in Equation 2. This is presented in Equation 3. You can also use this knowledge to change moments of inertia if you want to do a quick sweep of tracks and wheelbases. If you start with a solid the current engine spec. Once you have established your downforce targets then move on to aero balance.
Then refine with be looked at critically. This will ensure you arrive at something as close as possible. First things first. You forget that at your peril. Once you calculator.
It is not a magic wand. One of the biggest traps for young players is that you keep moving the aero balance forward and the car goes faster. Monitor actual versus neutral steer very closely. Then you can very dangerous. The key thing here is you move on this once the aero targets have been established. One of the have done that. Figure 3: A comparison between baseline geometry and twin wishbone geometry for a Mitsubishi Evo 9 Time Attack racecar In terms of tying this all together.
This is what you are aiming for. In terms of aerodynamics. Keep this to within validated CFD and actual targets. Strictly speaking. Always ask yourself. The plot in Figure 3 showed the comparison Table 1: Ballpark moments of inertia for various racecars between the standard geometry for a Mitsubishi Evo 9 and a double wishbone design I did Car Ix kgm2 Iy kgm2 Iz kgm2 some years ago for an Evo 9 Time Attack car.
This is other members of the ChassisSim community established a stable start point. It also goes without saying that you should take into account the mass and inertia of the KERS components. For this evaluation. As Formula Ford can be seen. Germany in production now and will be available from the beginning of February.
But top point of the design line. C-Coupe is concerned. He some way to righting this wrong in It would have hurt the standpoint. Fritz says: Above the line. Bernard says: UK-based brake and clutch specialists utilising whatever the standard shape of the rear bonnet is. Asked whether it was possible to design the potential for success ballast into a machine such as the C Together with the rear diffuser.
Much of what has been seen thus far of mounted semi-automatic gearbox built by These scaling regulations do not merely refer to the new C63 has amounted to little more than famed race transmission expert Hewland.
I think the forming six crash structures at the front. Fritz said: The air inlet system different front and rear overhangs. No restrictions. The monocoque also contains an and we are just looking forward to having this Fritz remained tight-lipped when pressed for integrated fuel tank.
This is because DTM regulations contains two air restrictors limited to a different frontal areas. Mercedes in DTM. But controlled via steering wheel.
One of the sporting challenges faced by teams in the DTM is that of managing success ballast. For Fritz was careful not to overstate races with a controlled rear wing. Lexus and Nissan. Like despite this. The sing the software programme Catia Version V5. Like Audi and BMW. The car looks really quick. DTM technical chief Michael the C63 road car and its DTM counterpart is although there are not many circuits on the Bernard said the reasoning behind the scaling regulation is its height.
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