Based on the name I was expecting a book that showed a regular person how to design/build a Stirling engine. Well, unless you're a PHD. Stirling Engine Manual (Vol 1) [James Rizzo] on goudzwaard.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Stirling Engine Book. Stirling Engine Books. Not finding enough information about Stirling engines on Google? While the Internet can provide you with a lot of information about.
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The following bibliography is not a complete listing of all books that have been published on the subject of Stirling Engines. These are books that sit on my book . I have great pleasure to write a forward to the very fundamental book on Stirling. Engines - A Beginners Guide, authored by Vineeth C S who completed his final. to present as much help on this subject as is presently freely available. A heat engine is a Stirling engine for the purpose of this book when: I.
In this book, Dr. Senft discusses, through quantitative analysis, the idea that mechanical efficiency of heat engines is just as important as thermodynamic efficiency. Senft has many publications available on site, and his introduction to Stirling engines is one of the more popular products. This book aims to provide an overview of Stirling engines, their history, and basic design components.
Another book available for download through this website is this design guide and overview by Merrick Lockwood. This book is another popular product on site and is dedicated to providing information on how to design, build, and optimize Stirling engine models.
Larsen — site. Jim Larsen runs his own Stirling engine website and has dedicated much of his life to building Stirling engines.
In this book, he details five of his original designs, provides design guidelines for two classic designs, and gives detailed reviews of four commercially available kits, including our own MM5 Kit. This book has the most site downloads for Stirling engine-related books with a high star rating.
Martini — site or Free Download. You can download either the first or second edition on site. Fair warning: Click on any of the links below to be taken a particular section: Senft — site Dr. Included in this book are all of the design drawings Lockwood still has. In parallel with the Bungalow set, Philips developed experimental Stirling engines for a wide variety of applications and continued to work in the field until the late s, but only achieved commercial success with the "reversed Stirling engine" cryocooler.
However, they filed a large number of patents and amassed a wealth of information, which they licensed to other companies and which formed the basis of much of the development work in the modern era. On the surface, these boats are propelled by marine diesel engines.
However, when submerged, they use a Stirling-driven generator developed by Swedish shipbuilder Kockums to recharge batteries and provide electrical power for propulsion.
In a submarine application, the Stirling engine offers the advantage of being exceptionally quiet when running. Stirling engines are frequently used in the dish version of Concentrated Solar Power systems. A mirrored dish similar to a very large satellite dish directs and concentrates sunlight onto a thermal receiver, which absorbs and collects the heat and using a fluid transfers it into the Stirling engine.
The resulting mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity. CHP units are being installed in people's homes.
A Stirling engine  is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas the working fluid at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. Closed-cycle, in this context, means a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator. Strictly speaking, the inclusion of the regenerator is what differentiates a Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines.
They are also capable of quiet operation and can use almost any heat source. The heat energy source is generated external to the Stirling engine rather than by internal combustion as with the Otto cycle or Diesel cycle engines. Because the Stirling engine is compatible with alternative and renewable energy sources it could become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as depletion of oil supplies and climate change.
This type of engine is currently generating interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power CHP units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine. Robert Stirling invented the first practical example of a closed cycle air engine in , and it was suggested by Fleeming Jenkin as early as that all such engines should therefore generically be called Stirling engines. This naming proposal found little favour, and the various types on the market continued to be known by the name of their individual designers or manufacturers, e.
In the s, the Philips company was seeking a suitable name for its own version of the 'air engine', which by that time had been tested with working fluids other than air, and decided upon 'Stirling engine' in April This contrasts with an internal combustion engine where heat input is by combustion of a fuel within the body of the working fluid.
Most of the many possible implementations of the Stirling engine fall into the category of reciprocating piston engine.
Functional description[ edit ] The engine is designed so the working gas is generally compressed in the colder portion of the engine and expanded in the hotter portion resulting in a net conversion of heat into work.
Cut-away diagram of a rhombic drive beta configuration Stirling engine design: Hot cylinder wall Coolant inlet and outlet pipes Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends Power piston Linkage crank and flywheels Not shown: Heat source and heat sinks.
In this design the displacer piston is constructed without a purpose-built regenerator. As a consequence of closed cycle operation, the heat driving a Stirling engine must be transmitted from a heat source to the working fluid by heat exchangers and finally to a heat sink.
A Stirling engine system has at least one heat source, one heat sink and up to five[ clarification needed ] heat exchangers. Some types may combine or dispense with some of these. If solar power is used as a heat source, regular solar mirrors and solar dishes may be utilised. The use of Fresnel lenses and mirrors has also been advocated, for example in planetary surface exploration. Typical implementations are internal and external fins or multiple small bore tubes.
Designing Stirling engine heat exchangers is a balance between high heat transfer with low viscous pumping losses , and low dead space unswept internal volume. Engines that operate at high powers and pressures require that heat exchangers on the hot side be made of alloys that retain considerable strength at high temperatures and that don't corrode or creep.
Main article: Regenerative heat exchanger In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other, taking heat from the fluid in one direction, and returning it in the other. It can be as simple as metal mesh or foam, and benefits from high surface area, high heat capacity, low conductivity and low flow friction. The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat that would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly.
As a secondary effect, increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot and cold end heat exchangers. These usually limit the engine's heat throughput. In practice this additional power may not be fully realized as the additional "dead space" unswept volume and pumping loss inherent in practical regenerators reduces the potential efficiency gains from regeneration.
The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume 'dead space' or flow resistance. These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors that limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines.
A typical design is a stack of fine metal wire meshes , with low porosity to reduce dead space, and with the wire axes perpendicular to the gas flow to reduce conduction in that direction and to maximize convective heat transfer.
Many small 'toy' Stirling engines, particularly low-temperature difference LTD types, do not have a distinct regenerator component and might be considered hot air engines; however a small amount of regeneration is provided by the surface of the displacer itself and the nearby cylinder wall, or similarly the passage connecting the hot and cold cylinders of an alpha configuration engine.
Heat sink[ edit ] The larger the temperature difference between the hot and cold sections of a Stirling engine, the greater the engine's efficiency.
The heat sink is typically the environment the engine operates in, at ambient temperature. In the case of medium to high power engines, a radiator is required to transfer the heat from the engine to the ambient air.
Marine engines have the advantage of using cool ambient sea, lake, or river water, which is typically cooler than ambient air. In the case of combined heat and power systems, the engine's cooling water is used directly or indirectly for heating purposes, raising efficiency. Alternatively, heat may be supplied at ambient temperature and the heat sink maintained at a lower temperature by such means as cryogenic fluid see Liquid nitrogen economy or iced water.
Displacer[ edit ] The displacer is a special-purpose piston , used in Beta and Gamma type Stirling engines, to move the working gas back and forth between the hot and cold heat exchangers. Depending on the type of engine design, the displacer may or may not be sealed to the cylinder, i.
Configurations[ edit ] There are three major types of Stirling engines, that are distinguished by the way they move the air between the hot and cold areas: The alpha configuration has two power pistons, one in a hot cylinder, one in a cold cylinder, and the gas is driven between the two by the pistons; it is typically in a V-formation with the pistons joined at the same point on a crankshaft.
The beta configuration has a single cylinder with a hot end and a cold end, containing a power piston and a 'displacer' that drives the gas between the hot and cold ends. It is typically used with a rhombic drive to achieve the phase difference between the displacer and power pistons, but they can be joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft.
The gamma configuration has two cylinders: one containing a displacer, with a hot and a cold end, and one for the power piston; they are joined to form a single space with the same pressure in both cylinders; the pistons are typically in parallel and joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft.
Alpha configuration operation[ edit ] An alpha Stirling contains two power pistons in separate cylinders, one hot and one cold. The hot cylinder is situated inside the high temperature heat exchanger and the cold cylinder is situated inside the low temperature heat exchanger.
This type of engine has a high power-to-volume ratio but has technical problems because of the usually high temperature of the hot piston and the durability of its seals. The crank angle has a major effect on efficiency and the best angle frequently must be found experimentally. The following diagrams do not show internal heat exchangers in the compression and expansion spaces, which are needed to produce power.
A regenerator would be placed in the pipe connecting the two cylinders. Most of the working gas is in the hot cylinder and has more contact with the hot cylinder's walls.
This results in overall heating of the gas. Its pressure increases and the gas expands. Because the hot cylinder is at its maximum volume and the cold cylinder is at the top of its stroke minimum volume , the volume of the system is increased by expansion into the cold cylinder. The system is at its maximum volume and the gas has more contact with the cold cylinder.
This cools the gas, lowering its pressure. Because of flywheel momentum or other piston pairs on the same shaft, the hot cylinder begins an upstroke reducing the volume of the system. Almost all the gas is now in the cold cylinder and cooling continues. This continues to reduce the pressure of the gas and cause contraction. Because the hot cylinder is at minimum volume and the cold cylinder is at its maximum volume, the volume of the system is further reduced by compression of the cold cylinder inwards.
The system is at its minimum volume and the gas has greater contact with the hot cylinder. The volume of the system increases by expansion of the hot cylinder. The complete alpha type Stirling cycle. Note that if the application of heat and cold is reversed, the engine runs in the opposite direction without any other changes. Beta configuration operation[ edit ] A beta Stirling has a single power piston arranged within the same cylinder on the same shaft as a displacer piston.
The displacer piston is a loose fit and does not extract any power from the expanding gas but only serves to shuttle the working gas between the hot and cold heat exchangers.
When the working gas is pushed to the hot end of the cylinder it expands and pushes the power piston. When it is pushed to the cold end of the cylinder it contracts and the momentum of the machine, usually enhanced by a flywheel , pushes the power piston the other way to compress the gas. Unlike the alpha type, the beta type avoids the technical problems of hot moving seals, as the power piston is not in contact with the hot gas. If a regenerator is used in a beta engine, it is usually in the position of the displacer and moving, often as a volume of wire mesh.
Power piston dark grey has compressed the gas, the displacer piston light grey has moved so that most of the gas is adjacent to the hot heat exchanger.