institutions will wish to offer courses for TKT preparation. TKT Modules 1–3: TKT Modules. 1, 2 and 3, including books and an online course, have been jointly. Support for TKT candidates and course providers. Frequently Asked resource books for English language teaching (ElT) and journals about ElT. TKT can. TKT Modules 1, 2 & 3 - Schoology. Pages·· Teaching Knowledge Test | contents 1 Contents Preface This handbook is intended for course 2.
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course – even if you are an experienced trainer and familiar with the TKT. THE COURSE . goudzwaard.info 3) Materials – a The only book to deal specifically with TKT preparation is: Spratt, M. Cambridge Core - Methodology - The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 - by Mary Spratt. Export citation; download the print book. Contents . PDF; Export citation. This is the updated version of the teacher training course for teachers and Selection and use of coursebook materials. Spratt Mary, Pulverness Alan, Williams Melanie. The TKT (Teaching Knowledge Test) Course. pdf.
Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No.
KinjalBamania1 excellent help.. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. In this second edition you will find a range of new material that makes this edition different from the first edition: If you subscribe to the online version at cambridgetkt.
It is designed to test candidates' knowledge of concepts related to language and language use, and the background to and practice of language teaching and learning. The TKT consists of seven modules: The modules can be taken together, or separately, in any order and any number.
With the exception of the TKT: Practical, the content of the TKT is tested by means of objective tasks, such as matching and multiple-choice, and each module consists of 80 questions. While the TKT: Practical focuses on classroom skills and the TKT: KAL on knowledge of English language systems, the other modules focus on knowledge about teaching. Candidates for all the modules are also expected to understand a range of over terms describing the practice of English Language Teaching ELT.
A selection of these terms appears in each TKT module. To introduce readers to the concepts and terms about teaching and learning that are central to the TKT, and to give them opportunities to do exam practice with TKT practice test tasks and practice exam papers.
To introduce readers to the main current theories, approaches, practices and 3. To share with readers details of some of the many resources, such as websites, grammar books, coursebooks and supplementary materials, available to English language teachers. To provide materials and activities that give teachers opportunities for professional development and reflection on their own teaching by exploring the concepts which have been introduced.
They may be studying for it on a course, or alone as self-access students. The course contains: Each module is divided into units covering the contents of the TKT syllabus for that module. The units focus on topics from the module, and then provide tasks and activities exploring the topics and preparing the reader for the TKT.
The units in the course build on one another, so that the ideas introduced in one unit provide the foundation for the ideas introduced in the next unit. Similarly, each module provides a foundation for the next module. Terms are highlighted in bold when they are defined.
They are also highlighted in bold when they appear in a unit for the first time. The first alphabetical list gives the terms that are defined and the page where their definition can be found. The second list shows the terms that are defined in each unit. These lists can be used as an aid for working on a unit, or for revision purposes. Glossary words are additional to this. The material in the book is designed to provide approximately hours of study. The advice in this table is intended for those using the book on a taught course or for self-access readers.
It can also be adapted for use by trainers. Section Purpose Suggestions for use Starter question and answer To provide a definition of the key terms in the title of the unit. Try to answer the question before reading the comments in the introductory paragraph Key concepts To introduce the main ideas of the topic of the unit and to explain the key ELT terms There is a short question at the beginning of this section. Try to answer it before reading the text that follows. This section could be read outside class Key concepts and the language teaching classroom To discuss how the key concepts influence English language teaching and learning.
Think about how each point might influence what you do in the classroom 5. Follow-up activities To allow the reader to work with the key concepts in order to understand them more fully.
These activities sometimes use tasks with different formats from those used in the TKT These activities are designed for use in or outside the training classroom. As this section is about opinions, it does not have an accompanying answer key. You could make use of the online Teacher Portfolio to record your thoughts: You will see that the book again suggests you make use of the Teacher Portfolio to write up and keep a record of your comments.
These tasks use the same question formats and numbers of questions as in the corresponding sections of the TKT Do these tasks to familiarize yourself with the formats of the TKT and to test yourself on the contents of the unit. You can check your answers in the answer key on page We suggest that readers using this book by themselves choose an English language teaching coursebook and think of a specific group of learners to work with for the Discovery and Reflection activities.
We also recommend readers to look at the tips for preparing for the TKT in the next section. Enjoy your teaching and your reflection on your teaching, and good luck to all those who take the TKT. Reading, Reference, Record- keeping and Reflection. Reading The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 already provides core reading for taking the TKT, but you can usefully supplement this by reading the books, magazines and websites recommended in the Discovery activities.
Some examples of these are mentioned below. You could also try to combine your reading with your teaching, using your lessons as an 7. Both books consist of language awareness tasks with keys that include detailed comments and explanations. These books are some that have been recommended. They discuss successful lessons, a favourite book, a new teaching idea, etc.
If there is a teachers' association in the area where you live, they may have their own, magazine or newsletter, but you could also look at some of the international magazines, such as English Teaching Professional http: You could also join internet forums, sometimes called discussion lists or message boards, to access another kind of ELT reading, and exchange ideas and experiences by email with other teachers for example, http: Reference Make regular use of reference materials such as dictionaries and grammar books when you prepare for your lessons.
The glossary is arranged by topic in the same order as in the syllabus. Use this to study for the exam, but also as you read materials on teaching methodology, as part of your general professional development. Record-keeping As suggested in many of the Discovery activities in The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3, it's a good idea to get into the habit of keeping lesson plans and making notes on methods and materials that you have used successfully.
Also make notes about your lessons, on what worked well and what you would do differently next time. Looking back at these notes is a good way of reminding yourself of all the knowledge you have about language and about teaching.
Reflection In the Discovery activities throughout The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3 we suggest you collect information data about your teaching from the classroom, make notes about your findings and think about how you might want to change the way you do things. We can learn from these reflections to help both with the TKT and with improving our teaching. Reflection is one stage of the classroom research cycle: For example, a teacher might want to improve the way they give instructions for 9.
By collecting data from a number of lessons, they notice that the instructions are often quite long and confusing and decide to try giving shorter instructions. But when they do this, they see that learners are still quite confused.
So they try a different solution: This seems to be more effective. We can collect data in many different ways, for example: Reflection is an important approach to developing as a teacher, and a very productive way to prepare for the TKT, especially if you are working alone, or do not have many opportunities to exchange ideas and experiences with colleagues.
Remember to write your reflections in your Teacher Portfolio at https: Study for the TKT but also use your everyday classroom teaching to help you prepare for it. Module 1. Language and background to language learning and teaching Module 2. Lesson planning and use of resource for language teaching Module 3. Describing language and language skills Part 2.
Background to language learning Part 3. Language and background to language learning and teaching Language and background to language learning and teaching Unit 1.
Grammar Unit 2. Lexis Unit 3. Phonology Unit 4. Functions Unit 5. Reading Unit 6.
Writing Unit 7. Listening Unit 8. Describing language and language skills Grammar refers to how we combine, organise and change parts of words, words and groups of words to make meaning. We also use it, particularly as teachers, to describe language. We do this by referring to its forms and its uses. Grammar includes a large number of forms and uses. These refer to how words are made up and presented in speech or writing. We can identify grammatical forms in parts of speech, grammatical structures and words that contain prefixes a group of letters added at the beginning of a base word and suffixes a group of letters added at the end of a base word.
There are nine parts of speech in English: A part of speech or word class describes how words behave in sentences, i. For example, in English: The tall girl ran very fast v but not Tall ran very fast x - an adverb can combine with an adjective but an adjective cannot combine with another adjective e. The form of some parts of speech varies according to the function the parts of speech have in a sentence.
So, for example, these two sentences show different forms of the adjective old: The boy thought he would never grow old; he's older than most of his friends.
The table below shows the functions of the different parts of speech. It also shows how most of the parts of speech can be broken down into subcategories. Part of Examples Function s Some Unit 1.
Grammar Prepositions at in the middle of between a noun, noun phrase or pronoun, and another word or phrase exemplification, exception, cause and effect, dependent Pronouns she mine who myself to replace or refer to a noun or noun phrase mentioned earlier, or about to be mentioned personal, possessive, relative, reflexive Conjunctions as and but to join words; sentences or parts- of sentences reason, addition, contrast, time, condition, purpose, result Exclamations er ow to show a strong feeling - especially in informal spoken language feelings of doubt or pain We also see different grammatical forms in a grammatical structure, i.
There are many grammatical terms to describe different grammatical structures. Here are some examples: Contrast clauses e. Nobody listened although she spoke very slowly and clearly As we can see from this table, we find grammatical structures not just in different forms of the parts of speech but also at the level of sentences, phrases and clauses. We can also talk about how words are formed through word building.
One important way in which English forms words is through the use of two kinds of affixes a group of letters added at the beginning or end of a base word which change its meaning: Affixes can give grammatical information, showing whether a verb is singular, for example, or marking a tense, parts of verbs, the plural of nouns, possessives, e.
Many other prefixes and suffixes are used in English to make new words, by changing their part of speech and adding a meaning to the base word, e. What are grammatical uses? Grammatical uses refer to how grammatical structures are used to convey or communicate meaning. A particular grammatical structure, e. Its meaning or use comes from the context in which it is used. For example she is doing her homework might mean: The reader or listener understands from the context that this refers to an arrangement for the future, e.
Many grammatical forms have more than one use. Here are some other examples: Structure Some uses a to describe a present state e. I live in London. Present simple repeatedly but which might not be happening at the moment e. The plane leaves at They get to the bus stop early and Stan talking to the other people. He shoots but the goalkeeper manages to save it- another lucky escape!
Present perfect a to describe past actions which have some connection to the present e. I've seen that film. I've visited most of the countries in Europe. She ate her food quickly. He only likes pizza. They change, too. But grammar rules and grammar books don't always change as quickly as the language, so they are not always up-to-date. For example, some grammar books say that we should use whom rather than who after prepositions. But in fact, except in some situations, who is generally used, with a different word order, e.
Teachers need to keep up- to-date with what parts of the language are changing and how. For example, repetition, exclamations and contractions two words that are pronounced or written as one, e. Some grammar books are now available which describe spoken language, too. Learning some grammatical rules and terms makes language learning easier for some learners.
Other learners, e. So, much language teaching nowadays also focuses on functions, language skills, fluency and communication. Learners need to develop accuracy in both form and use. See Units for how we learn grammar, Units for teaching grammatical structures, Units 19, 20 and 21 for planning lessons on grammatical structures, and Unit 32 for ways of correcting grammar. Follow-up Activities See page for answers 1.
Put these words into the correct category below. Some may belong to more than one category. Use prefixes and suffixes to make maps, as in the example, from these words: Complete the table with an example, a term or a description of form.
Indirect command You ought to hurry up 4. Read through the text below and identify the uses of the grammatical forms underlined.
The most amazing thing happened to me yesterday. I was leaving the house and I noticed that it was going to rain, so I ran back inside for my umbrella. As soon as I got out of the door, it started to pour down. I tried to open the umbrella but it wouldn't open. Then I felt something land on my head.
It was bigger and heavier than a raindrop. I looked on the ground and I couldn't believe my eyes. There were lots of tiny frogs falling in the rain. Oh no. Are you sure?
I've heard of it raining cats and dogs, but never frogs! Reflection Think about these teachers' comments, which do you agree with and why? Children don't learn grammar when they learn their first language but adults who learn a second language really need to. We need to learn grammar terms to help us learn a language more easily and quickly.
Discovery Activities 1. What grammar reference materials are available in your school? Do they describe spoken or written English? Are they up-to-date? How could they help you with your teaching? Compare any two of these books on grammar or the grammar information on the two websites. Which do you prefer? Are they more useful for you or your learners? Two of the words have the same grammatical function in the sentence.
One does NOT. She told us it was very cold there. He studied IT for his job but he made very slow progress so he gave up. They took off their coats and went to the table near the window. She found it really hard to concentrate as it was so noisy there. The young cat ran too fast for the dog to catch it easily. You should arrive early if you want to make a good impression. Here should is used to A. He stopped driving as he was worried about pollution.
Here as is used to A. Here who is used to A. My holiday starts next week and I come back the week after, on the 10th. Here come back is used to A. Here if is used to A. Hers is living is used to A. Lexis refers to individual words or sets of words, for example: We often speak of the meaning of words. In fact words have different kinds of meaning. Firstly, there is the meaning that describes the thing or idea behind the vocabulary item, e.
This meaning is called 'denotation', and we speak of 'denotative meaning'. Then there is figurative meaning. We speak, for example, of 'the tree of life' or 'a family tree'. This imaginative meaning comes from, but is different from, a word's denotative meaning.
There is also the meaning that a vocabulary item has in the context situation in which it is used, e. The meaning of some vocabulary items can also come from their form, e.
Adding prefixes or suffixes to base words the basic words or parts of a word from which other words can be made can, for example, give them an opposite meaning e. It may also change their part of speech e.
The process of adding affixes is called affixation. Compound nouns get their meaning from being together e. They have a different meaning from the individual words they are made up of. There are also words that regularly occur together, such as collocations, fixed expressions and idioms.
Collocations are words that often occur together e. There are many words which collocate in a language, and the degree of collocation can vary. For example, watch out is a very strong collocation as these words very often occur together, whereas watch a video is less strong and watch the postmen is not a collocation.
The words in watch the postmen can occur together but don't do so often enough to make them a collocation. Unit 2. Lexis Fixed expressions are expressions which can't be changed e.
Idioms are a kind of fixed expression as they can't be changed, but their meaning is usually different from the combination of the meaning of the individual words they contain e. Collocations, fixed expressions and idioms are all different kinds of chunks.
Have a good, trip, I'd like to Words also have different relationships with one another. They may, for example, be synonyms words with the same or similar meanings or antonyms words with opposite meanings. They may be part of the same lexical set groups of words that belong to the same topic area, e. They may also belong to the same word family words that come through affixation from the same base word, e. False friends, homophones, homonyms and varieties of English are other ways in which words can relate to one another.
False friends are very important in language teaching and learning. They are words which have the same or a similar form in two languages but a different meaning. Embarazado, for example, means pregnant in Spanish. It does not mean embarrassed, though it looks as if it does to an English speaker! Homophones and homonyms are important, too, in language learning.
Homophones are words with the same pronunciation but a different meaning or spelling e. Homonyms are words with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but a different meaning, e.
Words can also relate to one another through being examples of different varieties of English, i. Indian, Australian, us, South African, British. These varieties sometimes affect lexis as the same things can be called by different names in different varieties, e. The table below shows examples of some of the form and meaning relationships of two words.
Lexical features clear adjective paper noun Denotations 1. It seemed a good idea on paper Idioms to clear the decks to start afresh to put pen to paper We can see from this table that words sometimes have several denotations.
The Words can also change their denotations according to what part of speech they are, e. We can also see from the table that not all words have all the kinds of form or meaning relationships. This cannot take place the first time a learner meets a new word. It takes learners a long time to fully understand and use a word. At first they will probably just learn its most frequent denotative meaning, its spelling and pronunciation. In this way their memory of them will be consolidated and they will get to know more about the word, e.
They can meet words again in texts, or in vocabulary extension activities i. The words we recognise are called our 'receptive' vocabulary; the words we can use are called our 'productive' vocabulary. A teacher usually teaches learners key important words and exposes them to many more.
The learners pick these words up, initially only recognising their meaning, then eventually using them productively. Then we can point this out to the learners and help to save them from misunderstandings. For example, we may teach clothes before teaching jeans, shirt, T-shirt, etc. Experts think that children learning their first language learn the chunks as a whole rather than in parts. This helps them to remember them better and recall remember them more quickly.
As teachers we can highlight draw learners' attention to chunks of language for learners. Students can return to add information about individual words as they learn more about them. What does each of these sets of words have in common? Are they synonyms, antonyms, lexical sets, compounds, idioms, collocations, word families, homophones, words with prefixes or words with suffixes? Which do you agree with and why? There are some advantages in using translation to teach meaning, but some disadvantages, too.
I think it's really important-for my learners to keep a vocabulary notebook in which they write the word, its meaning s , its pronunciation, its collocations, etc.
Getting to know words is like getting to know a friend - you learn more about them bit by bit. Look up three words from your coursebook in an English-English dictionary. What kinds of information are given for each word?
Decide which information is important for your students 2. It tells you more about the meaning of words and gives lots of ideas for teaching vocabulary. TKT practice task 2 See page for answers For questions , read the text about the city of York.
Match the underlined words and phrases with the lexical terms listed A-G. There is one extra option which you do not need to use. Lexical terms A. Famous for its beautiful 2 architecture, streets and cathedral.
York is fast developing an active, lively cultural life. A city of contrasts and exciting discoveries, York is a place where the old and the new have 5 met, and the ordinary meets with the 6 unusual. Phonology is the study of the sound features used in a language to communicate meaning. In English these features include phonemes, word stress, sentence stress and intonation.
All these symbols represent phonemes.
A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound that can make a difference to meaning in a language. Different languages use a different range of sounds and not all of them have meaning in other languages.
Phonemic symbols help the reader know exactly what the correct pronunciation is. The phonemic script is a set of phonemic symbols which show in writing how words or sounds are pronounced, e. The phonemes of English are often shown in a chart, called the phonemic chart. The chart groups the sounds into vowels sounds made with the mouth partly open and where the air is not stopped by the tongue, lips or teeth, e.
Id in the top left- hand corner, diphthongs a movement from one vowel sound to another within a single syllable, e. The consonants are arranged in an order according to how Unit 3. Phonology Dictionaries always give phonemic transcriptions of words to show their pronunciation.
They usually have a list of all the phonemic symbols at the beginning or end of the book, together with an example of the sound each symbol represents. There are several phonemic scripts with some small differences in the symbols they use. The symbol is used to show word stress. Sometimes you see word stress marked in other ways, e. When we give word stress to a syllable we say it with greater energy and usually higher, i. Compare the stress in the vowel sounds in the underlined stressed syllables with the other syllables in these words: We pronounce the other syllables with less energy, especially the unstressed or weak syllables, whose vowels get shortened or sometimes even disappear, e.
There are many languages which, like English, give especially strong stress to one syllable in a word, e. Other languages give equal length to all the syllables. In English, stress also influences how sentences and groups of words are pronounced.
We say different parts of the sentence with more or less stress, i. This is called sentence stress. Normally one word in the sentence has primary or main stress. This is the word which the speaker thinks is most important to the meaning of the sentence. Other words can have secondary stress. This is not so strong as main stress and falls on words which are not so important to the meaning of the sentence as the word with main stress.
Other words in the sentence are unstressed. For example, in 'She came home late last night' or 'I can't understand a word he says', the words with the main stress would probably be the underlined ones, the words with secondary stress would probably be came, home, last, night and can't, understand, says, and the unstressed words she, I, a and he. Main and secondary stress usually occur on content words which carry meaning rather than structural words.
Content Words are nouns, verbs, adverbs or adjectives, i. Structural words are prepositions, articles, pronouns or determiners, i. For example, in the sentence 'The The others are grammatical words. You can see that normally these would not be stressed. Of course, there are exceptions to this. It is possible to stress any word in a sentence if the speaker thinks it is important.
Putting the stress on an unexpected word in a sentence is called contrastive stress. For example, The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly. Look at these examples: The girl ran to the sea and jumped in quickly, i.
Some other characteristics of connected speech are contractions, e. These characteristics help to keep the rhythm pattern of stress of speech regular. The regular beat falls on the main stress, while the weaker syllables and words are made shorter to keep to the rhythm. Try saying the sentences above and beating out a regular rhythm on your hand as you say them.
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Grammarman Meet the Grammarman team Grammarman: Episode 1 Grammarman: Episode 2 Grammarman: Episode 3 Grammarman: Episode 4 Grammarman: Episode 5 Grammarman: Episode 6 Grammarman: British English Determiners Nouns and phrases Verbs and tenses Grammar teaching Exploiting texts Little words, big grammar Task-based grammar teaching The discovery technique Grammar resources by area. About me Lesson 2: Countries Lesson 3: Pizzaland Lesson 4: Daily routine Lesson 5: Colours Lesson 6: I love my family Lesson 7: How can we get back home?
Air, land and sea No girls, no boys! Lost in the rainforest China: Kung fu master China: The girl in the red dress England: Knights of the Round Table England: Suffer and suffrage England: To be or not to be England: To be or not to be: The play USA: Off to a flying start Impressions Getting to know you: What's your name?
Getting to know you: Let's get personal First impressions Friends You choose! What is CLIL?