Knowledge that you can download from their website or download in book form, . Each chapter in the CBOK® addresses a different topic within BPM and is meant to. Download BPM CBOK do início ao fim, ele é segmento de negócio, por exemplo, eTOM (Enhanced Corpo Comum A tradução do ABPMP BPM CBOK. This Guide to the BPM CBOK® provides a basic reference document for all practitioners. It is available as a printable PDF download* to ABPMP International.
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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book Details Author: Paperback Brand: Createspace ISBN: The primary purpose of this guide is to identify and provide an overview of the Knowledge Areas that are generally recognized and accepted as good practice. The Guide provides a general overview of each Knowledge Area and provides a list of common activities and tasks associated with each Knowledge Area.
It also provides links and references to other sources of information which are part of the broader BPM Common Body of Knowledge. If you want to download this book, click link in the next page 5.
Thank You For Visiting. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Mock trials can be similar to events run in a process laboratory.
However, mock trials are typically one-off testing events versus the ongoing study and simulation often found in laboratories.
Mock trials include running test transactions based on actual or sample data from real processes on an end-to-end basis. Some process simulation tools provide the ability to perform load analysis. For example, simulating peak, average, and valley transaction loads predict impact on cycle time, resource requirements, bottlenecks, etc. Simulation generates data sets that allow many different types of process analysis.
Some of the typical analyses are resource utilization, distribution analysis, cycle time analysis, and cost analysis. Some process simulation tools can also present animations of the simulations.
Animations may be helpful in visually identifying phenomena during performance that may not be readily apparent in typical analysis of simulation data sets.
Process models are simplified representations of some business activity. A process model serves as a means to communicate several different 3. Process models are used to document, analyze or design a business model Process models are useful as documentation, a means for communication and alignment, design and requirements, or a means to analyze aspects of the process, training, and explanation.
Different levels or perspectives of business processes are expressed by models showing different scopes and levels of detail for different audiences and purposes. There are many different styles of process modeling notation and ways to develop process models.
The creation of this common understanding is process analysis. This chapter explores the how and why of process analysis.
After reviewing why a process must be analyzed and who is involved in the analysis stage, the specifics of how to analyze a process will be explored in detail followed by discussions about the techniques, tools, methodologies, and frameworks that can be used.
Finally, a discussion concerning the suggested practices will be presented to ensure a complete understanding of what is necessary for a successful analysis of process. A process is a defined set of sequential or parallel activities or behaviors to achieve a goal. Process analysis is creating an understanding of the activities of the process and measures the success of those activities in meeting the goals.
Process analysis is accomplished through various techniques including mapping, interviewing, simulations and various other analytical techniques and methodologies.
It often includes a study of the business environment and factors that contribute to or interact with the environment such as government or industry regulations, market pressures, and competition. Other factors also considered include the context of the business, its strategy, the supply chain the inputs and outputs of the process , customer needs, organizational culture, business values and how the process will perform to achieve business goals.
The information gained through the analysis should be agreed upon by all those that interact with the process. It should represent what is actually happening and not what is thought or wished to be happening. It should also be an unbiased view without placing blame for existing inefficiencies. The result of this analysis forms the foundation for process design and is addressed in the following chapter.
An analysis generates the information necessary for the organization to make informed decisions assessing the activities of the business. Without it, decisions are made based on opinion or intuition rather than documented, validated facts.
In addition, as business cycles fluctuate and customer needs change, the products and services offered also change. When combined with changes in government regulations, economic conditions, marketing strategies, advancing technology and internal. The process analysis, therefore, becomes an essential tool to show how well the business is meeting its objectives.
It does so by creating an understanding of how work the transformation of inputs to outputs happens in the organization.
Specifically, the analysis will generate an understanding and measurement of process effectiveness and its efficiency. The effectiveness of a process is a measurement of achieving the purpose or need for the process whether the process meets the needs of the customer, satisfies the objectives of the business or is the right process for the current business environment or context. Measuring the efficiency of the process indicates the degree of resources utilized in performing the activities of the process.
It measures whether the process is costly, slow, wasteful, or has other deficiencies and is a measurement of the performance of the process. An analysis of these measurements helps uncover important facts about how work flows in the organization. The information generated from this analysis will include the following: Strategy, culture, and environment of the organization that uses the process why the process exists Inputs and outputs of the process Stakeholders, both internal and external, including suppliers, customers and their needs and expectations Inefficiencies within the current process Scalability of the process to meet customer demands Business rules that control the process and why they must exist What performance metrics should monitor the process, who is interested in those metrics and what they mean What activities make up the process and their dependencies across departments and business functions Improved resource utilization Opportunities to reduce constraints and increase capacity.
This information becomes a valuable resource to management and leadership to understand how the business is functioning and will help them to make informed decisions on how to adapt to a changing environment and ensure that the processes running the business are optimal for attaining business objectives. The need to analyze a process can be the result of continuous monitoring of processes or can be triggered by specific events.
This section discusses the impact of each.
Managing the business by process implies not only that there are regular and consistent performance metrics that monitor the processes of the organization, but also that these metrics are routinely reviewed and steps are taken to ensure process performance meets the predetermined goals of the organization.
As such, the eventual goal of any organization should be the ability to continuously analyze processes as they are performed through the use of monitoring tools and techniques. When this is in place, timely decisions can be made.
This continuous analysis benefits the organization in numerous ways.
First, it alerts management to potential poor performance of the process and can help point to the cause of the poor performance such as system deviations, competition, environmental factors, etc. If the process is not performing, immediate action can be taken to resolve the cause.
Next, the real-time feedback through continuous analysis provides a measurement for the human performance and reward systems. Finally, it reduces the number of process improvement projects performed, thus saving time and cost associated with those efforts. The following are just a few of the events that may trigger a process analysis. Strategic Planning Regularly, most companies review and update their strategic plans.
They survey the market and competitive landscape for new opportunities and establish new goals. Process analysis may need to occur following an update to the strategic plan to re-align the processes to meet the new organizations objectives. Performance Issues Current performance may be declared inadequate for a variety of reasons, i.
Process analysis can assist in determining the reasons for the inadequacies and identify changes that may improve performance. New Technologies Advancing technologies can improve process performance and an analysis will help create an understanding of how they should be adopted. New technologies, however, must be applied deliberately to avoid unintended consequences. Process analysis will help the organization understand how and where new technologies should be applied to gain the maximum benefit to the organization.
Startup Venture When new ventures or businesses are anticipated, managers and leaders should be concerned about identifying the processes that will be required to successfully deliver the new products and services.
A process analysis should be performed before the merging of processes to ensure that the combined outcome meets the combined business objectives.
Regulatory Requirements Often regulatory bodies governing businesses will create or change regulations that require the business to modify its processes. Performing a process analysis as part of meeting these requirements will ensure the business is able to meet the requirement change with as little impact to the business as possible.
A successful process analysis will involve a variety of individuals within the organization. Several additional roles are also necessary to perform a process analysis and are defined below.
One of the first steps in a process analysis is to establish and assign those roles. The individual or group ultimately responsible for the performance of the process, whether it is the process owner or the executive leadership team, should carefully select those who will lead and manage the team in the various roles to ensure successful completion of the project and that the analysis is comprehensive and accurately represents the state of the process.
This cross-functional team will provide a variety of experiences and views of the current state of the process and ultimately result in a better understanding of both the process and the organization. This team should include subject matter experts, stakeholders, functional business leaders, and others that have an interest in the performance of the process and also have the authority to make decisions about the process.
It is also important to make sure that enough time has been allocation for these resources to function properly in the assignment. As in any project, process improvement projects often fail because of a lack of importance and priority placed on the project. When the same people responsible for the process improvement project are caught between the competing priorities of their primary responsibility, the process improvement project is usually what will suffer.
The analyst or a member of the analysis team should have competencies in the process management frameworks, methodologies, and tools or techniques used in process management as described later in this chapter. Often, outside consultants with expertise in process management are used if the analysis team lacks the adequate knowledge of process management frameworks.
Once the process improvement team is in place, the next step would be to communicate to the team their responsibilities according to the role that each will play in the process. They should have a thorough understanding of the expectations of each member and agree to commit the time and effort required to make the project a success.
Analyst The analyst has the responsibility to decide the depth and scope of the analysis, how it is analyzed, and then proceeds to perform the analysis.
Often, members of an analysis team will take on responsibilities of project management or facilitation to help project advancement. Once the analysis is complete the analyst or analysis team has the responsibility to provide documentation and final reports to the stakeholders and executive leadership.
Facilitator Facilitators are often used to lead process analysis teams. Regardless of whether the facilitator is from inside the organization or is an external consultant, the facilitator must approach the responsibility with an unbiased view.
Objectivity is critical to ensure the analysis truly represents the current state. A good facilitator will not steer the group down a particular path but rather let the group discover the path through the analytical techniques chosen and through proper management of group dynamics.
Subject Matter Experts The analysis of a process is best done using the knowledge and expertise of the individuals closest to the process. Subject Matter Experts SMEs include not only experts in the business process but also those that are familiar with both the business and technical infrastructure that supports the process.
Before beginning an analysis project the scope of the project and the frameworks and tools to be used should be determined. The following sections will discuss these decisions.
One method of choosing which process should receive priority is through examining the critical business goals of the organization. A critical business goal for an organization defines why the organization exists and what controls the success of the organization. An airline, for example, exists to put people on planes. That is how they make their money. The more people they can put on planes, the more planes they can fly and the more money they make. All functions, departments, and other processes of that company exist only to support that one process: A business may have one or more critical business goals.
Once critical business goals have been identified the processes supporting those goals should be identified. These processes should be governed by performance metrics and monitored closely. The performance can then be analyzed and ranked to understand where the effort for process analysis should be placed.
One process ranking method involves scoring each process by assigning a severity number between 1 and 10 with 10 being the most severe. Once each member of the team has scored each process, the results are averaged and the process with the highest score is the first to be improved.
Another ranking method involves creating a 2 x 2 matrix as in the following. Each process is listed somewhere within the matrix based on its severity and impact to the organization. Those processes that scored a high in both impact and severity are the processes that need the most attention first.
Whatever method is chosen to rank processes for analysis, the processes chosen should directly meet the goals of the organization and have a positive impact to the critical business result. The depth of the analysis is the beginning and end of the analysis. Scoping is critical to decide how far the project will reach, how much of the organization it will involve and the impact any changes will have upstream and downstream of the process analyzed. As an example, suppose that the analysis team has been assigned to analyze an invoicing process.
Since receiving checks paid on invoices must also interact with the invoice process, the analysis team would need to decide if that is also an activity that should be analyzed as part of the project or if it should be analyzed as part of a payment received process and separate from the current project.
It may be necessary to interview a variety of individuals in various business functions before making this decision.
An important consideration is that the more business functions and activities included in the analysis project, the more complicated the analysis and the longer it is likely to take.
The analyst or team may wish to break down larger processes and analyze sub-processes in order to optimize time but before doing so must consider the impact of future process improvement projects.
Topics to be studied, methods for studying them, tools to be used, etc.
Some projects may start with a completed, verified model that can be used for analysis while others may require the development of a model or at least its validation for use in the analysis , or development of a simulation based on the model. The analyst or analysis team should review and decide which of the methodologies, frameworks or tools should be used.
Once the framework or methodology has been agreed, the analysis team decides what techniques and tools to use in addition to or as part of that framework.
Although it may be tempting to use all of the known or available techniques, it is best to only use those that make the most sense for the process being analyzed and for the organization. Although there are several well recognized and published methodologies for process analysis it is beyond the scope of the CBOK to describe or promote them. The following sections, therefore, describe common activities that are typically followed during a process analysis. These activities apply whether the process is an established or a new process regardless of the size of the process.
Developing an understanding of what is happening with the process, its strengths, weaknesses, and results achieved can be facilitated by considering the following discussion topics and questions. What is the process trying to accomplish? Why has it been created? What triggered the analysis? What are the systems required to support or enable the process and how sustainable are those systems? Where does it fit into the value chain of the organization? Is the process in alignment with the strategic objectives of the organization?
Does it provide value to the organization and how critical is it? How well does it function in the current business environment and how well could it adapt if the environment were to change?
What are the risks to the process external, environmental or internal and can the process adapt to survive those risks? That culture includes how work is performed and what motivates the members of the organization to do the work. By changing the process by which they work, the culture may also change.
This may lead to unintended consequences as new processes are put into place. Part of the analysis process is to ask questions that will help the analysis team understand the culture of the organization and those unwritten rules that determine how and by who work is really accomplished.
The goal of these discussions is to understand what will happen to the organization when the process is changed. Inquire of the following:. Who in the organization are the leaders or those that seem to have the most influential power of the organization? Are they in positions of authority? If they do not agree with the process improvements, will the improvement be successful?
What kind of social networks exist in the organization? How will any changes affect those social networks? If individuals will be displaced as a result of a process change, what would be the anticipated result of these networks? Will individuals voluntarily leave the company as a result of the process change? If so, how will this disrupt the process?
What is the motivating factor for production? If the workers are not selfmotivated how does work get done? What are the incentives that reward work output?
If the success of a process has been measured on quantity as opposed to quality, what will happen if the measurement is shifted to quality? Will the organization stop producing to ensure quality? How will the change affect the leadership training in the organization? What is the motivating factor for promotion? Will the goals for measuring leadership change? How will the reason for the process change be interpreted by the individuals effected or responsible for the process? Is it a sign of weakness in the organization or strategy?
A methodical analysis can help to understand the nature of the gaps, why they exist, and how the situation can be rectified. A key element of this understanding is the identification of actionable and auditable metrics that accurately indicate process performance. These metrics will provide indicators as to where and how a process should be adjusted. Key questions to ask during this discussion include the following: Is the process meeting its performance goals?
Does the process take too long and if so, why and what is the measurement of too long? What could happen to make it worse? How would we know if the process has improved, i. How is data reported about the process, who views this data, and what do they do with it?
Where should performance points be recorded so the process is accurately measured and monitored? Would entering these performance points affect the performance of the process? Who is the customer, what is his need, why does he choose to participate in the process and could he go elsewhere instead of using this process? Do customers complain about the process? How many times does a customer interact with the process?
Is it too many? Are there redundancies in the interactions? How do we know if they are satisfied? What is the customer's expectation or objective with the process and why does he need the process? How does the customer want to interact with the process?
If the process supports internal activities, what is the impact or indirect effects to the customer? Handoffs are very vulnerable to process disconnections and should be analyzed closely.
Typically, the fewer number of handoffs, the more successful the process. After identifying each handoff, the following questions might be used to guide this discussion: Which of the handoffs are most likely to break down the process? Are there any bottlenecks of information or services as a result of handoffs happening too quickly? Can any handoff be eliminated? Where do streams of information come together and is the timing accurate?
They help define the performance expectations and create clear guidelines around these expectations. Often business rules are created without an understanding of why they exist or are so outdated that they no longer apply but because of organizational culture they still are being followed. When analyzing the business rules of the process, consider the following: Do the current business rules cause obstacles by requiring unnecessary approvals, steps, or other constraints that should be eliminated?
Are the business rules in alignment with the objectives of the organization? Who created the business rules and upon what were they based? When were the rules created and does their need exist? If the rules were eliminated, what would be the result? How flexible is the process to accommodate changes in the business rules? When analyzing the capacity of a process, consider the following: Is the process scalable and if inputs were increased, at what point will the process break down?
What would happen if the process slowed down and what is the cost of the idle time of the process? If idle, can those resources be put to work on other processes? What happens when the process cannot get supplies and materials quickly enough to meet demand? If the process speeds up can the consumer of the process handle the increase in production? These are typically not good in any process.
The following questions may help the team understand the nature of the bottlenecks: What is being constrained: Why does the bottleneck exist, what are the factors contributing to the bottleneck, and are these factors people, systems, or organizational?
Is it the bottleneck the result of handoffs or lack of information? Is the bottleneck the result of a resource constraint and what type of resource: Are there unnecessary check points that create the bottleneck that can be eliminated? If multiple streams are processing information in parallel, do the streams come together at the same time or is one waiting for the other?
Does the process create a backlog upstream or downstream from the process? Although especially true in the manufacturing industry, variation in any mass production industry is not good.
Variation inevitably slows down the process and requires more resources to properly scale. If the nature of the business requires variation as its core business strategy then look for places where some of the variation can be reduced which could save on the overall cycle time of the process.
Discussion topics could include the following: How much variation is tolerable for the process? Is variation necessary or desirable? Where are the points where variation is most likely to occur?
Can automation help eliminate variation? Understanding the cost of the process helps the team understand the value of the process in real dollars to the organization. Some of the discussions might revolve around the following: What is the total cost of the process? Can the process be broken up into small cost allocations? Is the cost in line with industry best practices?
Is the cost absorbed by the customer directly or is it a cost of business? Can the cost be reduced through automation or technology improvements? If so, how and by what extent?
Processes involve either automated activities or activities performed by real people. Automated activities generally run consistently, and when they dont it is possible to find and correct the situation that is causing the problem. Activities performed by real people are more complex as they involve judgment and skill that cannot be automated.
People do not always do the same task in the same way. The following questions can help guide the discussion around this important analysis. How much variability is introduced by the human element?
Is the variability tolerable? Can the action be automated? What would be the result to the process? What would be the result to the human element and to the culture of the organization? How complex is the task? What are the skill sets required? How are performers trained for the task? How do the performers of the task respond to external events during the task?
How does the performer know when the task is done well? What feedback systems are in place to guide the performer? What can the performer do with this feed back what can he or she change with this knowledge?
Does the performer know where the task lies in the process and what the results of the actions are downstream? What does the performer do with variations in the inputs for the task?
Can the performer identify variations before the task is completed? What is the motivation for performing the task or performing the task well? How much knowledge is available to the performer to accomplish this task?
Is it sufficient? Process controls are put in place to ensure adherence to legal, regulatory or financial constraints or obligations.
Process controls are different from control processes in that the former defines the control while the latter defines the steps to achieve that control. For example, the requirement to obtain a signature is a process control while the steps that must be performed to obtain that signature is a control process. The following questions may assist in understanding what process controls are in place. Are there any legal controls that must be considered in relation to the process?
What are the environmental impacts of the process and do those impacts need to be controlled? Who are the regulatory or governing agencies that will regulate the process and do they need to be informed of the process change?
The purpose of the discussion topics described above is to spark discussion about the process. Other discussion topics not mentioned above will naturally arise during the process analysis and should equally be explored. Conversely, some of the topics noted above might not apply to the process being analyzed.
The key point to remember is that the analysis must encompass a variety of techniques and topics to achieve a complete and well rounded understanding of the process. The next step in the analysis would be for the analyst or team to gather as much relevant information about the process and business environment as possible.
While there seem to be many successful models for implementing BPM in organizations, one thing they all have in common is the many new roles with new sets of skills and responsibilities all centered on BPM.
This is an emerging group of professionals whose work is essential to 21st century business, the business process professional. Some of these roles may be staffed in IT organizations and some in business disciplines. Many organizations are staffing cross-discipline groups combining both IT and business knowledge or with people who have served in both IT and business units and bring a depth of knowledge and range of skills that transcend traditional boundaries.
Many have found that combining people who have general consulting type knowledge and skills with those who have a depth of business specific knowledge is a successful strategy for BPM efforts. There is a new professional in the business world today, the business process professional. The work they do is critical to the future of competitive organizations today. And, even though there is no single or clear model that one can adopt, it doesnt diminish the need for more skilled and motivated people to do this work.
Eventually, universities will come out with well researched and structured models based on some of the most visible success stories. In the meantime, business cant wait for someone to tell them the best way to do this, they have to do this work today and there just arent enough knowledgeable skilled people to go around. Successful organizations are finding that to staff these groups, they have to invest in training and development.
Some are building their own curricula and training programs and bringing entry level people on board to work closely with the few talented BPM professionals they do have. Others are sending managers, project leaders, and systems analysts to training like the BPMInstitute certificate program to begin to build the requisite knowledge and skills.
This situation will likely continue to be the most viable approach to building process organizations for the near future. The mission of ABPMP is to engage in activities that promote the practice of business process management, to develop a common body of knowledge in this field, and to contribute to the advancement and skill development of professionals who work in this discipline.
ABPMPs local chapters produce periodic events featuring case studies and presentations about BPM topics that provide an inexpensive continuing education program for their members.
Following that we will produce recommended curricula for academic and training programs. We intend to create a set of criteria to evaluate training programs and a formal endorsement process for training providers and academic programs.
Following that we will develop a professional certification program to certify practitioners and expert business process management professionals. I think working in BPM at this time is the most exciting and valuable business experience managers and professionals can get today. I see Business Process Management professionals as the new training background for future business leaders today, much as project management was 15 years ago. However, we need to develop some baseline standards, minimum qualifications, and some reasonable path for becoming a professional in this area.
Together we can build a new professional discipline that will create the future Background on ABPMP The Association of Business Process Management Professionals ABPMP is a nonprofit, vendor independent, professional organization dedicated to the advancement of business process management concepts and its practices.
ABPMP is practitioner-oriented and practitioner-led. Individuals wishing to participate who are not located near an existing local chapter are urged to investigate the feasibility of starting a chapter where they are located. While they are not affiliated with a local operating chapter, members will be part of the Members At-Large chapter which has its own elected officers and participates in ABPMP activities as any other chapter would. Each chapter president is an exofficio and voting member of the International Board of Directors.
ABPMP also has a Board of Advisors made up of some of the most well-known authors, practitioners and thought-leaders in the field. Additional affiliations are described in the Appendix labeled Reference Disciplines. Operation The ABPMP produces educational and networking events for continuing education and sharing of best practices, new ideas, and experiences of its members and professional colleagues.
Code of Ethics ABPMP is committed to the highest standard of professional ethics and believes that Business Process Management Professionals should: Conduct their professional and personal lives and activities in an ethical manner Recognize a standard of ethics founded on honesty, justice and courtesy as principles guiding their conduct and way of life There is an obligation to practice their profession according to this code of ethics and standards of conduct All ABPMP members must agree to and sign the following code of ethics and statement of professional conduct.
The keystone of professional conduct is integrity. Business Process Management Professionals will discharge their duties with fidelity to the public, their employers, and clients with fairness and impartiality to all.
It is their duty to interest themselves in public welfare, and be ready to apply their special knowledge for the benefit of humankind and the environment. I acknowledge that: I have an obligation to society and will participate to the best of my ability in the dissemination of knowledge pertaining to the general development and understanding of business process management.
Further, I shall not use knowledge of a confidential nature to further my personal interest, nor shall I violate the privacy and confidentiality of information entrusted to me or to which I may gain access. I shall promote the understanding of business process management methods and procedures using every resource available to me.
I have an obligation to my fellow members and professional colleagues. I accept these obligations as a personal responsibility and as a member of this Association. I shall actively discharge these obligations and I dedicate myself to that end.