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Written in a lively and engaging style, it looks at two main issues. One is the 'why' of being vegetarian; on the positive side the ethical, social, environmental, health and spiritual reasons for being vegetarian, and on the negative side the proven damage caused by animal-based food production to human health and our planet, as well as the suffering and death inflicted on vast numbers of living creatures every day.
The other is the 'how' of being vegetarian; myths and helpful facts about a vegetarian diet, eating healthily, understanding 'hidden' non-vegetarian ingredients in foods, travelling as a vegetarian, and dealing with lack of understanding or even opposition from family, friends, school, or the workplace. The book is packed with useful and up-to-date facts and figures, with links to the scientific research on which the book is based for those who want to delve more deeply.
It offers many clear and convincing answers to the often-heard question: 'why are you vegetarian? This thought-provoking book presents the universal law of cause and effect from human and spiritual perspectives.
It describes the invisible prison in which we all live and how we can transcend this condition by changing our orientation from material to spiritual goals. It starts by addressing our current situation as human beings and covers such topics as the consequences of our actions, death, reincarnation, our true spiritual nature, the boundless infinite, the need for a spiritual teacher, vegetarianism, leading an honest life, meditation, and the true path to God-realization.
The book takes a look at the cultural norms that underpin a deep-rooted tradition of son preference, draws our attention to the scale of the crisis, and highlights the far-reaching effects of having a society where men outnumber women at an ever-increasing rate. The book calls out to our conscience to consider the profound consequences of our actions. The central thrust of the book is a powerful concept: that our morality is not separate from our spirituality.
The primary problem in V-plants is "robbing," where one operation A immediately after a diverging point "steals" materials meant for the other operation B. Once the material has been processed by A, it cannot come back and be run through B without significant rework.
A-plant: The general flow of material is many-to-one, such as in a plant where many sub-assemblies converge for a final assembly. The primary problem in A-plants is in synchronizing the converging lines so that each supplies the final assembly point at the right time. T-plant: The general flow is that of an I-plant or has multiple lines , which then splits into many assemblies many-to-many. Most manufactured parts are used in multiple assemblies and nearly all assemblies use multiple parts.
Customized devices, such as computers, are good examples. T-plants suffer from both synchronization problems of A-plants parts aren't all available for an assembly and the robbing problems of V-plants one assembly steals parts that could have been used in another.
I-plant: Material flows in a sequence, such as in an assembly line. The primary work is done in a straight sequence of events one-to-one. The constraint is the slowest operation. From the above list, one can deduce that for non-material systems one could draw the flow of work or the flow of processes, instead of physical flows, and arrive at similar basic V, A, T, or I structures. A project, for example, is an A-shaped sequence of work, culminating in a delivered product i.
Other tools mainly the "thinking process" also led to TOC applications in the fields of marketing and sales , and finance. The solution as applied to each of these areas are listed below. Operations[ edit ] Within manufacturing operations and operations management , the solution seeks to pull materials through the system, rather than push them into the system.
Any attempt to produce more than what the constraint can process just leads to excess inventory piling up. The drum is the rate at which the physical constraint of the plant can work: the work center or machine or operation that limits the ability of the entire system to produce more. The rest of the plant follows the beat of the drum. Schedule at the drum decides what the system should produce, in what sequence to produce and how much to produce.
The buffer protects the drum, so that it always has work flowing to it. Buffers in DBR provide the additional lead time beyond the required set up and process times, for materials in the product flow. Since these buffers have time as their unit of measure, rather than quantity of material, this makes the priority system operate strictly based on the time an order is expected to be at the drum. Each work order will have a remaining buffer status that can be calculated.
Based on this buffer status, work orders can be color coded into Red, Yellow and Green. The red orders have the highest priority and must be worked on first, since they have penetrated most into their buffers followed by yellow and green. As time evolves, this buffer status might change and the color assigned to the particular work order change with it.
S-DBR has a buffer at shipping and manages the flow of work across the drum through a load planning mechanism. Orders are released to the shop floor at one "buffer time" before they are due to be processed by the constraint.
In other words, if the buffer is 5 days, the order is released 5 days before it is due at the constraint.
Putting work into the system earlier than this buffer time is likely to generate too-high work-in-process and slow down the entire system.
These machines operate at different speeds and capacities and have varying efficiency levels. To be able to maximize the throughput, the production line usually has a designed constraint.
This constraint is typically the slowest and often the most expensive machine on the line.
The overall throughput of the line is determined by this machine. All other machines can operate faster and are connected by conveyors. The conveyors usually have the ability to buffer product.
In the event of a stoppage at a machine other than the constraint, the conveyor can buffer the product enabling the constraint machine to keep on running. A typical line setup is such that in normal operation the upstream conveyors from the constraint machine are always run full to prevent starvation at the constraint and the downstream conveyors are run empty to prevent a back up at the constraint.
The overall aim is to prevent minor stoppages at the machines from impacting the constraint. For this reason as the machines get further from the constraint, they have the ability to run faster than the previous machine and this creates a V curve.
The TOC distribution solution is effective when used to address a single link in the supply chain and more so across the entire system, even if that system comprises many different companies. The purpose of the TOC distribution solution is to establish a competitive advantage based on extraordinary availability by reducing the damages caused when the flow of goods is interrupted by shortages and surpluses.
This approach uses several new rules to protect availability with less inventory than is conventionally required. Inventory is held at an aggregation point s as close as possible to the source. This approach ensures smoothed demand at the aggregation point, requiring proportionally less inventory. The distribution centers holding the aggregated stock are able to ship goods downstream to the next link in the supply chain much more quickly than a make-to-order manufacturer can.
Following this rule may result in a make-to-order manufacturer converting to make-to-stock. The inventory added at the aggregation point is significantly less than the inventory reduction downstream. In all stocking locations, initial inventory buffers are set which effectively create an upper limit of the inventory at that location.
The buffer size is equal to the maximum expected consumption within the average RT, plus additional stock to protect in case a delivery is late. In other words, there is no advantage in holding more inventory in a location than the amount that might be consumed before more could be ordered and received. Once buffers have been established, no replenishment orders are placed as long as the quantity inbound already ordered but not yet received plus the quantity on hand are equal to or greater than the buffer size.
Following this rule causes surplus inventory to be bled off as it is consumed. To ensure buffers remain correctly sized even with changes in the rates of demand and replenishment, a simple recursive algorithm called Buffer Management is used. Moving buffers up more readily than down is supported by the usually greater damage caused by shortages as compared to the damage caused by surpluses.
Replenishment Time RT is the sum of the delay, after the first consumption following a delivery, before an order is placed plus the delay after the order is placed until the ordered goods arrive at the ordering location.
Once inventory is managed as described above, continuous efforts should be undertaken to reduce RT, late deliveries, supplier minimum order quantities both per SKU and per order and customer order batching.
Any improvements in these areas will automatically improve both availability and inventory turns, thanks to the adaptive nature of Buffer Management. A stocking location that manages inventory according to the TOC should help a non-TOC customer downstream link in a supply chain, whether internal or external manage their inventory according to the TOC process.
This type of help can take the form of a vendor managed inventory VMI. Doing so has the effect of smoothing the demand from the customer and reducing order sizes per SKU. VMI results in better availability and inventory turns for both supplier and customer.
The benefits to the non-TOC customers are sufficient to meet the purpose of capitalizing on the competitive edge by giving the customer a reason to be more loyal and give more business to the upstream link.
When the end consumers download more, the whole supply chain sells more. One caveat should be considered. Initially and only temporarily, the supply chain or a specific link may sell less as the surplus inventory in the system is sold. However, the sales lift due to improved availability is a countervailing factor.