In the crystalline lattice structure of Si, the valence electrons of every Si atom are locked up in covalent bonds with the valence electrons of four neighboring Si. Basics of Electrical,. Electronics and. Communication Engineering. K. A. NAVAS. goudzwaard.infosor in ECE. Govt. Engineering College. Thrissur The information contained within this Basic Electronics Tutorials guide is provided "as-is" and free of and electronic circuits and soldering irons. Thank you and.
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Communication Systems. ▫ Basic components: ▫ Transmitter. ▫ Channel or medium. ▫ Receiver. ▫ Noise degrades or interferes with transmitted information. Notes for goudzwaard.info, BE and Diploma in Electronics and Communication Engineering Basic Electronics, Download Basic Electronics-1 Notes · Download Basics. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION EC09 (P) Digital Electronics Lab .. To expose the students to the basic concepts of electric circuits and their.
And explain different types of feedback.
Feedback is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is passed fed back to the input. This is often used to control the dynamic behaviour of the system. Types of feedback: Negative feedback: This tends to reduce output but in amplifiers, stabilizes and linearizes operation.
Positive feedback: This tends to increase output. In contrast, a system that responds to the perturbation in the opposite direction is called a negative feedback system. Bipolar feedback: which can either increase or decrease output. Advantages of negative feedback over positive feedback.
Much attention has been given by researchers to negative feedback processes, because negative feedback processes lead systems towards equilibrium states. Positive feedback reinforces a given tendency of a system and can lead a system away from equilibrium states, possibly causing quite unexpected results. Example for negative feedback and positive feedback. What is Oscillator? An oscillator is a circuit that creates a waveform output from a direct current input. The two main types of oscillator are harmonic and relaxation.
The harmonic oscillators have smooth curved waveforms, while relaxation oscillators have waveforms with sharp changes. What is a transducer and transponder? A transducer is a device, usually electrical, electronic, electro-mechanical, electromagnetic, photonic, or photovoltaic that converts one type of energy or physical attribute to another for various purposes including measurement or information transfer.
An automatic device that transmits a predetermined messagein response to a predefined received signal. A receiver-transmitter that will generate a reply signal upon proper electronic interrogation. What is an Integrated Circuit?
An integrated circuit IC , also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. What is crosstalk? Crosstalk is a form of interference caused by signals in nearby conductors. The most common example is hearing an unwanted conversation on the telephone. Crosstalk can also occur in radios, televisions, networking equipment, and even electric guitars.
What is a rectifier? A rectifier changes alternating current into direct current. This process is called rectification.
The three main types of rectifier are the half-wave, full-wave, and bridge. A rectifier is the opposite of an inverter, which changes direct current into alternating current. HWR- The simplest type is the half-wave rectifier, which can be made with just one diode. When the voltage of the alternating current is positive, the diode becomes forward-biased and current flows through it.
When the voltage is negative, the diode is reverse-biased and the current stops. The result is a clipped copy of the alternating current waveform with only positive voltage, and an average voltage that is one third of the peak input voltage. This pulsating direct current is adequate for some components, but others require a more steady current. This requires a full-wave rectifier that can convert both parts of the cycle to positive voltage. FWR- The full-wave rectifier is essentially two half-wave rectifiers, and can be made with two diodes and an earthed centre tap on the transformer.
The positive voltage half of the cycle flows through one diode, and the negative half flows through the other.
The centre tap allows the circuit to be completed because current cannot flow through the other diode. The result is still a pulsating direct current but with just over half the input peak voltage, and double the frequency. What is resistor?
What is capacitor? Capacitors are often used in electric and electronic circuits asenergy-storage devices.
They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals. This property makes them useful in electronic filters. Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. This term is considered archaic in English, but most other languages use acognate of condenser to refer to a capacitor.
What is inductor? An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. An inductor can take many forms. What is conductor? A substance, body, or device that readily conducts heat, electricity, sound, etc.
Copper is a good conductor of electricity. What is a semi conductor? A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivityin between that of a conductor and that of an insulator AnInsulator is a material that resists the flow of electric current.
It is an object intended to support or separate electrical conductorswithout passing current through itself ; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. What is diode? In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device.
Power Amplifiers Power Amplifiers: Class A Amplifiers Class B amplifier Cross over distortion Class B amplifier Biasing a class B amplifier Class C amplifier JFET Amplifiers Transductance Curves Biasing the FET Biasing the FET: Self Bias Current Source Bias FET a amplifier Design of JFET amplifier JFET Applications Common-Drain Amplifier Operational Amplifiers The ideal operational amplifier Inverting Amplifier The Non-inverting Amplifier Voltage Follower Unity Gain Buffer The Summing Amplifier Differential Amplifier The Op-amp Integrator Amplifier The Op-amp Differentiator Amplifier History of The Numeral Systems Binary codes Conversion of decimal to binary base 10 to base 2 Octal Number System Hexadecimal Number System Rules of Binary Addition and Subtraction Each topic is complete with diagrams, equations and other forms of graphical representations for better learning and quick understanding.
Electronics is part of engineering education courses and technology degree programs of various universities. Hence the modulation is useful to process the wide range of signals. The information signal intelligence signal combines with the carrier in the modulator to produce the modulated wave. The information signal is up-converted from low frequencies in the transmitter and down-converted from high frequencies to low frequencies in the receiver.
The process of converting a frequency or band of frequencies to another location in the total frequency spectrum is called frequency translation. Frequency translation is an intricate part of electronic communications because information signals may be up- and down-converted many times as they are transported through the system is called a channel.
The modulated signal is transported to the receiver over a transmission system. In the receiver, the modulated signal is amplified, down-converted in frequency, and then demodulated to demodulated the original source information. An analog communication system is a system in which energy is transmitted and received in analog form. With analog communications systems, both the information and the carrier are analog signals. Pulse communication is a technique, some parameter of each pulse carrier is modulated by a particular sample value of the message signal.
On the other hand the digital communication covers broad range communication techniques, including digital transmission and digital radio. Digital transmission is a true digital system where digital pulses are transferred between two or more points in a communication system.
This is accomplished by converting the original information into electromagnetic energy and then transmitting it to one or more receiving stations where it is converted back to its original form. Electromagnetic energy can propagate as a voltage or current along a metallic wire, as emitted radio waves through free space, or as light waves down an optical fiber. Electromagnetic energy is distributed throughout almost infinite range frequencies.
This process is referred to as frequency translation theorem. This frequency translation is achieved by Multiplication in time domain or Frequency convolution property of FT and illustrated below. This property defines that multiplication of two signals in the time domain is equivalent to the convolution of these two signals in the frequency domain.
The highest frequencyis represented by B Hz in the figure. Similarly Fig b represnts the time domain and frequency domain representation of c t.
Since the signal c t consists of single high frequency component, it is represented by a single spike in the frequency axis. The resultant multiplied signal is shown in Fig c.
It can be observed in the frequency spectrum that the message signal is translated or shifted to into high frequency range. This undesired component is removed by low pass filter with cut off frequency of message signal as shown in figure.
Hence 2 we conclude that by again applying frequency translation, we obtain the original signal. The phase shift of each component must also satisfy certain relationships. It is conceivable that even if all the frequency components of a signal are transmitted through the system with equal attenuation, but if they acquire different phase shifts in the process of transmission, they may add up to an entirely different signal.
For a distortion less transmission, we require that the response be an exact replica of the input signal. This replica may, of course have a different magnitude.
The important thing is the waveform and not its relative magnitude. In general, they may also be some time delay associated with this replica. It is evident that the response is the exact replica of the input with a magnitude k times the original signal and delayed by t 0 seconds.
If F s is the transform of f t , then from the time shifting property, L.