Handbook of petrochemicals production processes pdf


 

With chapters prepared by some of the largest petrochemical and petroleum companies in the world, Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Yomen Atassi and others published Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Robert A. Meyers and others published Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes.

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Handbook Of Petrochemicals Production Processes Pdf

Handbook of petrochemicals production processes/ Robert A. Meyers, editor-in- chief.- New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 v. (various pagings): ill., maps. Editorial Reviews. Review. Although described as a handbook, this work is more an encyclopedic description of 53 industrial process technologies for producing. Handbook of Petrochemicals Production, Second Edition [Robert A. Meyers] on A complete guide to petrochemicals production processes―fully revised to.

Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! See if you have enough points for this item. Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes has become a key reference in the chemical and petroleum engineering markets. The book is unique in that it presents licensable technologies for the refining of petroleum and production of environmentally acceptable fuels and petrochemical intermediates. The new edition covers the gamut of global refining technologies in light of recent changes to the sources of these fuels, as well as the most up-to-date global environmental regulations. Contributions come from such major licensors of petroleum refining technology as UOP, Inc. The new edition shifts its emphasis to accommodate the increased production of shale gas and shale oil which is changing the overall mix of hydrocarbon feeds. Declining conventional crude production and the need for regional energy independence continues to drive demand to use lower-cost, alternate feedstocks such as coal, shale oil, and heavy crude. To use alternate feedstocks in existing refineries, many processes need to be modified. The increase in diesel demand and stricter fuel specifications is driving refiners to look for ways to produce higher yields from existing assets. The book reflects these factors, plus the increase in residue conversion; hydrocracking evolving as a primary conversion process; and hydrotreating increasing as a way to treat virgin and cracked middle distillate streams. Offers detailed description of process chemistry and thermodynamics and product by-product specifications of plants Contributors are drawn from the largest petroleum producers in the world, including Chevron, Shell, ExxonMobil, and UOP Covers the very latest technologies in the field of petroleum refining processes and the shift toward shale gas and oil A complete listing and explanation of licensable global technologies for the refining of petroleum and the production of environmentally acceptable fuels and petrochemical intermediates Provides product-by-product specifications and process economics — capital investment annualized capital costs and the price range for each product download the eBook.

In this way, propene is protonated by a Brnsted acid site and a carbenium ion is formed. Finally this ion is attacked by a free or weakly adsorbed benzene or isopropylbenzene 17, 18 molecule, producing cumene or diisopropylbenzene DIPB , respectively. However, the carbenium ion formed can also react with another propene molecule, producing oligomers, which are responsible for the deactivation of the catalyst.

The formation of n-propylbenzene is undesired since the isomer is difficult and costly to separate from the cumene stream. Cumene can also suffer a consecutive alkylation reaction, yielding diisopropylbenzenes DIPBs. However, the DIPBs are not considered as waste products since they can be recovered by transalkylation with benzene It has been shown that Beta zeolite performs well in liquid-phase alkylation with both ethene and propene 22 and excellent efficiencies in benzene alkylation have been reported Similar results have been claimed for MCM22 zeolite in patent literature 8, 9 but there is little information available in the open literature.

Meters Robert A. Handbook of petrochemicals production processes

A recent paper 24 compares catalytic activity of MWW with Beta and other zeolites. Beta zeolite appears to be one of the most efficient catalysts and MCM also shows a surprisingly good behaviour on the basis of a single experiment. The differences cannot be explained by considering only the crystallinity and structure of the samples, but it has to be assumed that a higher dealumination took place with the Beta sample during calcination.

The presence of a higher amount of Lewis acid sites in Beta zeolite, which is usually related to the presence of highly dispersed extraframework aluminium EFAL species formed during thermal treatment 25 , supports this assumption. The differences in textural properties, i.

The lower microporosity and higher mesoporosity of Beta zeolite can be attributed to the agglomeration of very small crystallite size as well as a partial destruction of the zeolite lattice, which may occur during dealumination.

It can be seen that even if both zeolites show high activity, at least at relatively short time on stream TOS , Beta zeolite appears to have a slightly higher initial activity. Since alkylation reactions are catalysed by the acid sites of zeolites 26 , we could expect that the higher the concentration of Brnsted acid sites in a zeolite the higher the alkylation activity should be.

However, in this case, although MCM presents a higher concentration of acid sites, its activity is slightly lower Fig. This result can be explained by taking into account that in the case of MCM only the sites pointing to the external surface, i.

Indeed, it has been reported 24 that the diffusion of cumene in the pores of MCM is hampered by a high energy barrier. Moreover, it has been presented 27 by means of molecular dynamic simulation that even benzene presents a low diffusivity in either of the two pore systems of the MWW structure. On the other hand, the framework of Beta zeolite, with 12membered ring channels, presents lower steric hindrance and both benzene and cumene can diffuse without great difficulty.

Nevertheless, if the crystal size is too large, cumene diffusion can control, at least partially, the rate of the global process even in zeolites with 12 MR pores like Beta Under some reaction conditions, it can be seen Fig. Zeolite MCM does not show deactivation, at least under the reaction conditions studied here.

The deactivation in Beta zeolite can be related to the formation of propene oligomers in the channels. These species can remain strongly adsorbed and can be responsible for the observed deactivation. Since it was claimed that only the external acid sites are active in the case of MCM, the formation of oligomers in the 10 MR cavities should not affect the activity.

Similar results have been claimed for MCM22 zeolite in patent literature 8, 9 but there is little information available in the open literature.

A recent paper 24 compares catalytic activity of MWW with Beta and other zeolites. Beta zeolite appears to be one of the most efficient catalysts and MCM also shows a surprisingly good behaviour on the basis of a single experiment. The differences cannot be explained by considering only the crystallinity and structure of the samples, but it has to be assumed that a higher dealumination took place with the Beta sample during calcination.

The presence of a higher amount of Lewis acid sites in Beta zeolite, which is usually related to the presence of highly dispersed extraframework aluminium EFAL species formed during thermal treatment 25 , supports this assumption. The differences in textural properties, i. The lower microporosity and higher mesoporosity of Beta zeolite can be attributed to the agglomeration of very small crystallite size as well as a partial destruction of the zeolite lattice, which may occur during dealumination.

It can be seen that even if both zeolites show high activity, at least at relatively short time on stream TOS , Beta zeolite appears to have a slightly higher initial activity. Since alkylation reactions are catalysed by the acid sites of zeolites 26 , we could expect that the higher the concentration of Brnsted acid sites in a zeolite the higher the alkylation activity should be.

However, in this case, although MCM presents a higher concentration of acid sites, its activity is slightly lower Fig.

This result can be explained by taking into account that in the case of MCM only the sites pointing to the external surface, i. Indeed, it has been reported 24 that the diffusion of cumene in the pores of MCM is hampered by a high energy barrier.

Moreover, it has been presented 27 by means of molecular dynamic simulation that even benzene presents a low diffusivity in either of the two pore systems of the MWW structure. On the other hand, the framework of Beta zeolite, with 12membered ring channels, presents lower steric hindrance and both benzene and cumene can diffuse without great difficulty.

Nevertheless, if the crystal size is too large, cumene diffusion can control, at least partially, the rate of the global process even in zeolites with 12 MR pores like Beta Under some reaction conditions, it can be seen Fig. Zeolite MCM does not show deactivation, at least under the reaction conditions studied here.

Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes (McGraw-Hill Handbooks)

The deactivation in Beta zeolite can be related to the formation of propene oligomers in the channels. These species can remain strongly adsorbed and can be responsible for the observed deactivation. Since it was claimed that only the external acid sites are active in the case of MCM, the formation of oligomers in the 10 MR cavities should not affect the activity.

Propene conversion with Beta d and MCM j zeolites under the following reaction conditions: total pressure, 3.

Handbook of petrochemicals production processes (mc graw hill handboo…

In order to explain the performance of MCM we should assume that a significant number of acid sites are placed in the large half cavities or chalices opened to the exterior at the termination of the crystallites Fig. In these cavities the diffusion of the products, as well as the diffusion of the coke precursors, is easier and faster and therefore the deactivation is slower.

It should be taken into account that the external acid sites that can be reached by DTBPy are only a rather small fraction of the total acid sites presented in MCM Then, when the sample containing adsorbed DTBPy was used to catalyse the alkylation of benzene with propene, it can be seen Fig. On the other hand, and in order to show that the internal acid sites were still present, the DTBPy deactivated sample was used to catalyse the isomerization of 1-hexene.

This reactant was chosen because of the easy diffusion through the 10 MR windows, and also because the double bond isomerization requires low temperatures within the range of those used for the alkylation of benzene.

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