A CHRISTMAS CAROL. IN PROSE. BEING. 7>BC (C>AH >5 7A8BCCHARLES DICKENS. WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY JOHN LEECH. 7^WYS`f 7Taa] e. A Christmas Carol by. Charles Dickens. Stave I. "Marley's Ghost". Marley was dead: to begin with. There is no doubt whatever about that. The register of his. Download A Christmas Carol free in PDF & EPUB format. Download Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or.
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A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as goudzwaard.info: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to. Project Gutenberg · 59, free ebooks · by Charles Dickens. A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. No cover available. Download. A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens One Christmas Eve Scrooge was sitting in his office. It was only three .. was singing a Christmas carol. But I didn't give.
Thus Dickens expressed that this suffering can be attributed to the Industrial Revolution and its consequences, like the migration towards the larger industrial cities. Coketown is a fictional city in Dickens's novel Hard Times. It stands synonymous for any industrial towns in Britain that turned into dreadful places because of the coal factories, and the constant pollution in the air from the factories' chimneys.
When the coal was burned it left a black, pulverized residue all over the city, which is called coke. Seaman Hence, it can be said that while people's lives in the continuously growing and developing cities did change because of urbanization, it does not imply that their living conditions, and people's morals, were superior before the Victorian age, and only deteriorated because of industrial advancement.
Besides that, agriculture was still the leading source of employment, followed by domestic service, and construction work. At first here was no technological innovation—and therefore no industrial revolution—in these major fields of employment, because new technology was primarily adopted in cotton factories and coal production cf.
However, some laborers who moved to the city were much more successful than others, and some adjusted to city life—which was dirty and lacking sanitation and amenities—quickly, while others did not cf.
There was an ever-growing divide between the wealthy and those in debt. The wealthy profited from the growing industry and the factories that were established, while many poor people were in debt simply to pay for food. This vast inequality between the rich and the poverty-stricken population could have been diminished by administering money to support the lower classes and help them grow out of poverty.
However, the British government rather established oppressive laws for the indebted poor, sending them to workhouses and prisons when they could not pay their deficits. These new rules were established as the New Poor Law of The first workhouses were built in under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, centuries before the Victorian era, and Dickens was very outspoken to disapprove of the atrocious conditions within these workhouses cf.
Kryger The people who make the law should consider what implications their cruel decisions have on the population. A personal change among lawmakers, such as the capability of feeling empathy, might have reduced the consequences of such laws towards the more unfortunate people.
Thomas Malthus approved of these new drastic laws and the institution of the workhouses, claiming that those men who could not help themselves and their families do not have the right to live and expect the rich people to help sustain them. Dickens was not only affronted by Malthus's analysis, but also by the man who would come to such a conclusion. In his writings, Dickens opposed many politicians but there were some that he supported because of their courage and character.
Michael Thomas Sadler was one of them. He was a member of Parliament for the Tory party when he established a parliamentary committee to examine the working conditions of children in factories and mills cf. Engels Dickens had often observed and criticized the heartless treatment of working children, presumably as a result of his own experience as a young child working long hours in a factory. He had seen the poverty of children living in poorhouses, and he emphasized the importance of educating the poor rather than punishing them for being in a destitute situation.
These rules were seen as more humane, even incorporating mandatory attendance in school, but they were overall still ruthless towards children. Depending on their age, the average working hours for children were determined to be between nine and thirteen a day, six days a week cf.
Dickens was a great supporter of children's rights, which were rather nonexistent in Victorian times. His idea then turned into a novel that prompted to restore kindness and humanity within Victorian society.
Dickens's Social Criticism Dickens was a social reformer and he knew that an open critique of society's shortcomings would not help in spreading his opinion, and his readers would be rather offended.
Therefore, he wrapped his criticism in an entertaining Christmas story inviting the reader to form their own understanding of what society was lacking. Dickens criticized the large divide between the rich and poor in British society, where the wealthy were only interested in their financial gain and the poor ended up in workhouses or debtor's prison.
As mentioned before, Dickens disapproved of the cruel treatment of children. In A Christmas Carol he introduces Bob Cratchit's son, Tiny Tim, as a small and disabled young boy, to prompt his readers into feeling empathy and compassion towards children but also towards the entire underprivileged population.
In addition to that he confronts the upper classes with their lack of private charity, and the insufficiency of a welfare system from the government. Poverty Poverty is one of the most prominent themes in the novel.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the divide in society between very rich people like Scrooge and very poor people like the Cratchits was growing tremendously.
Victorian society mostly ignored, but at the same time took advantage of the poor among them by letting them work hard under cruel working conditions.
While Scrooge is greedy about his money and keeps everything to himself, he lets his poor clerk Bob Cratchit work for a measly salary in a freezing office.
It is a sad place because he almost has to beg to get Christmas Day off work, though it was not yet a habit to have the day off to celebrate with the family. Yet the pursuit of wealth is not feasible for people like Scrooge's clerk, because he has a house and a family to care for. They live in Camden Town in the suburbs of London.
Scrooge and the second spirit find Mrs. Cratchit and the children preparing their Christmas dinner, and everyone is happy when their eldest daughter Marta finally comes home to celebrate with them.
They make the most of their small festivities and embace the holiday for the fact that the entire family can be together. Dickens shows the humanity and the morale of the poor, reminding his readers that this is the most essential part of Christmas.
Bob makes a toast in honor of Mr. Scrooge thanking him for their dinner, because without his work he could not have provided this meal for his family: Even though his working conditions at Scrooge's seem inhuman and exploitative, it shows that Bob is pleased to have constant work at all, and he is a very loyal and honorable employee.
Nonetheless, the family's clothes are old and worn out and there is no money to be spent on any luxuries: At least they do not live in a poorhouse and they can afford a modest Christmas dinner. When poor people did not have the money to pay for food it was quite common for them to run into debts, which they could never pay back. This is what happened to Dickens's father and many others at the time. According to the New Poor Law of they would eventually be confined to a workhouse or debtor's prison.
The New Poor Law was quite different from the Old Poor Law, which was established in under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and it stated that every person without work had the right to be supported by the state to avoid starvation.
The Old Poor Law was then altered in to reduce the costs for the government, and the right of the poor to be supported by the state was abolished, and every poor person in debt was brought into a workhouse. As a consequence of reducing the expenses for workhouses, the living conditions there deteriorated even more, even though they certainly had never been pleasant in the first place cf. Nevertheless, the New Poor Law could not withstand the rapid developments in the cities, and the Industrial Revolution, the consequential sudden increase in population and urbanization raised the costs to support the poor in the workhouses significantly.
The poor are the weakest part of the population and defenseless against any legal consequences that derive from their debts. Not only poor men lived in workhouses, but entire families as well as orphaned children. Dickens proposed schooling and religious education for these poor children, because those who live in filth will not see any hope and they will no longer have faith and believe in God. But giving them access to education and religion will give them the prospect of surviving and eventually overcoming their hardships cf.
Dickens, Speeches In addition to that, Dickens was an advocate for public hygiene after having read about the living conditions of the poor in the s, and after having experienced it himself when his family lived in a poorhouse.
I can honestly declare that the use I have since that time made of my eyes and nose have only strengthened the conviction that certain sanitary reforms must precede all other social remedies, and that neither education nor religion can do anything useful until the way has been paved for their ministrations by cleanliness and decency. But the lack of cleanliness and the overcrowded conditions in the workhouses caused the spread of diseases among the poor.
Subsequently, this is what Robert Malthus theory on the regulation of overpopulation concluded, namely that poor ill people without the access to medical treatment would perish and therefore naturally readjust the growth of the British population.
The Treatment of Children Dickens condemned the way many children had to survive in the overcrowded slums of London, and throughout his life he promoted the better treatment of children in many ways, notably by incorporating children's stories into his novels, for instance in two of his most famous works David Copperfield and Oliver Twist. Whilst David Copperfield is very likely based on Dickens's own life, he must have known that sad stories about poor and exploited children would certainly evoke sympathy and kindness in his readers, thereby being an effective tool in pointing out the deficits in society.
Dickens's A Christmas Carol does not go into detail about the exploitation of child labor, it is merely mentioned that Bob Cratchit's daughter Martha works long hours at a stretch and his son Peter will soon be put to work to help the family cf.
Dickens Tiny Tim, Ignorance, and Want. Ignorance and Want are two poor and filthy children who hide under the cloak of the Ghost of Christmas Present, and Scrooge is warned to be wary of them and their kind.
The spirit advises Scrooge to be especially wary of the boy, to be cautious of ignorance, which seems quite accurate because Scrooge has lived the past years, and presumably his entire life in ignorance towards others, especially regarding the poor.
Scrooge is confronted with the reality of poverty, and seeing it in two helpless children intrigues even his heartless character. The third child is Tiny Tim. At Dickens's time there were many disabled children, some were born this way and some were handicapped because of accidents that happened while they were working. He is described as a very small child, too small for his age, and today there are several medical explanations for his delayed growth, but at the time it could have also been caused by poor nutrition.
Carter concludes that Tiny Tim had been most likely suffering from tuberculosis, a disease in the young of joints, particularly the hip joint and spine. It was a common condition, and one associated with a high mortality. Crippled children who survived childhood only did so, however, to become part of a society that had always regarded the lame with suspicion. It was an age-old prejudice. Scrooge asks the spirit if Tiny Tim will survive the next year and the spirit replies that he most likely will not.
Through the character of Tiny Tim, Dickens could persuade his readers to empathize with children in poor situations. He had learned about poverty and disease in children from his own experience in the workhouse, and his dedication and his sense of obligation in all probability originated from his childhood: It is very likely that his experiences during this period led to his empathy towards neglected children, the poor, and disabled, and would drive him to describe the life of the poor in his novels, and later resulted in his being an activist and reformer.
Forster In his novels Dickens refers to the number of children who died because of the lack of access to medical treatment, and the deficiency in sanitation, and by spelling it out for everyone to read he saw the beginning of compassion and understanding within society Seaman Carter concludes that in his novel Dickens had shown the connection between poverty and disease, and thus, accomplished to prompt the nation into consciously acknowledging the issues that society had so far been happy to ignore cf.
Even before the Industrial Revolution it was evaluated that half of the population relied on charity or help from the state to relieve poverty.
Scrooge is depicted as the utmost hoarder of his money and possessions, a loner with no empathy towards other people in need, even though he has the means to help them. When two gentlemen visit him in his office the day before Christmas to ask for charity for the poor, Scrooge requested: The gentlemen concede that the tax money is not sufficient to keep the workhouses in tolerable conditions.
But Scrooge ignores the plight of the lower classes, and insists that he will not spend his money on additional private charity. Scrooge's remark goes back to Robert Malthus comment that those who cannot sustain themselves did not have the right to live, and would thereby regulate the overpopulation by simply dying. The establishment of workhouses and debtor's prisons in the first place deemed the poor inferior and insignificant within society.
However, individual merit had lost its meaning in a society that was growing to become a powerful nation because of their economic turnout.
The need to achieve and preserve more and more money could be attributed to the capitalist spirit, which was very common because of the rise of the English industry and the new opportunities to make money. Wealth, Dickens now insisted over and over, could be created at much too high a price. Indeed, the creation of wealth—economic growth—as a social goal increasingly appeared to him to be a moral cancer, claiming—and promising—ever more of life, poisoning natural and essential human values.
Wiener 34 Dickens exposes the immense gap between the rich and the poor, and shows the moral values within Victorian society. He blamed the lack of a working welfare system on the government, but he likewise reproached society for its lack of generosity and goodwill. He portrayed a merciless and unkind image of the upper classes. Scrooge lives in a large house which was old and dreary, but he only occupies a few rooms of it.
Scrooge symbolizes the greedy and selfish Victorian rich character, a bitter man with lots of money but still lives like a poor person, not out of necessity but out of greed: He is wealthy, but his wealth does not mean anything when compared to the Cratchits and their strong family bond. The Cratchits are not wealthy, but they are wealthy when it comes to human value because they are merry and content. I have always thought of Christmas time […] as a good time: It is more about the spirit than wealth.
The Victorian age relied heavily on private charity. While the industry expanded within the country as well as overseas, and generated a substantial profit, Britain was at the same time resisting to invest in social development such as education, new additional housing, and public health cf. Seaman The Victorian technique of postponing as long as they could the adoption of collective social policies and of relying hopefully on the not very effective anodyne of private charity as the chief means of dealing with poverty left a burdensome legacy to succeeding generations.
In the end, after the three spirits have visited him, it seems as if Scrooge is reawakened: Never mind.
He regains a child-like innocence towards Christmas and life in general, and ultimately, becomes the most generous person in his neighborhood. Conclusion The aim of this term paper was to analyze Dickens's A Christmas Carol and his interpretation of the deficiencies within Victorian society. It is not merely a novel about Christmas, but rather a harsh criticism of the population at the time and Dickens's disappointment with the lack of humanity. Having experienced society's cruel treatment of his father, and of poor people in general, Dickens had recognized the social deficits.
He condemns the growing divide between the wealthy and the poor, and he exposes selfishness and greed as dominant features of Victorian England, for instance when Scrooge refuses to give money to charity. Lack of charity was one of the aspects he pointed out, but also the ignorance towards the unprivileged in society, and the maltreatment of children. The Victorian period was a time of uncertainty, and the British did not know how to approach the vast developments in technology, which led to a tremendous amount of people moving to the larger cities.
What Malthus failed to consider was the magnitude of technological development, primarily in factories, but later in the field of agriculture as well, which would lead to a more rapid production of food to sustain the entire population. Agriculture was still the leading source of employment in the Victorian era. Poverty was essentially the biggest fear in Victorian society. It would result in starvation or financial debts to pay for food.
Rich people profited from the expanding industry and the growing factories, while many poor people were in debt simply to pay for food.
Under the New Poor Law of debtors would eventually be confined to a workhouse or prison until they had earned enough money to pay their debts. Dickens reminded his readers to remember the Christian spirit behind Christmas, which meant bringing the family together and showing humanity towards the poor. A Christmas Carol. Charles Dickens. Everyone is familiar with this classic Christmas story. Ebenezer Scrooge is a miserly, unpleasant man who despises Christmas and overworks his clerk Bob Cratchit.
As he prepares for another Christmas Eve without celebration, Scrooge is greeted by his dead business partner, Jacob Marley who warns him that his greed will not go unpunished.
He is made to face his cruel nature, and to consider whether he should change his ways. This is a free digital copy of a book that has been carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. To make this print edition available as an ebook, we have extracted the text using Optical Character Recognition OCR technology and submitted it to a review process to ensure its accuracy and legibility across different screen sizes and devices.
Google is proud to partner with libraries to make this book available to readers everywhere. A true classic! There is no doubt whatever about that The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, the clerk, the undertaker, and the chief mourner. Scrooge signed it. And Scrooge's name was good upon 'Change, for anything he chose to put his hand to.
Be here all the earlier next morning!