Romeo & Juliet: The Graphic Novel. Original Text Version. William Shakespeare. First published: December Reprinted: October , October Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . Romeo and Juliet. PROLOGUE. Two households, both alike in dignity,. In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,. From ancient grudge break to new mutiny.
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Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose. CHORUS. PRINCE ESCALUS, Prince of Verona. PARIS, a young Count, kinsman to the Prince. MONTAGUE, heads of two houses at variance with each other. William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet Virtual Entertainment, Series: World classic books. Cover is the picture of the painter Frank Dicksee (– ).
Draper points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in the four humours and the main characters of the play for example, Tybalt as a choleric.
Interpreting the text in the light of humours reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences. For example, Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive; it is, after Mercutio's death, the expected action to take. In this scene, Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms , identity, and commitments. He makes the choice to kill, not because of a tragic flaw , but because of circumstance. O heavy lightness, serious vanity, Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms, Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
Caroline Spurgeon considers the theme of light as "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love" and later critics have expanded on this interpretation. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun,  brighter than a torch,  a jewel sparkling in the night,  and a bright angel among dark clouds.
For example, Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them, but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight. This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love.
At the end of the story, when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow, light and dark have returned to their proper places, the outward darkness reflecting the true, inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers. All characters now recognise their folly in light of recent events, and things return to the natural order, thanks to the love and death of Romeo and Juliet. Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them.
Stars were thought to control the fates of humanity, and as time passed, stars would move along their course in the sky, also charting the course of human lives below. Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play, and when he learns of Juliet's death, he defies the stars' course for him. Thomas Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play, as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom".
In the end, the only way they seem to defeat time is through a death that makes them immortal through art. In Shakespeare's day, plays were most often performed at noon or in the afternoon in broad daylight. Shakespeare uses references to the night and day, the stars, the moon, and the sun to create this illusion. He also has characters frequently refer to days of the week and specific hours to help the audience understand that time has passed in the story. All in all, no fewer than references to time are found in the play, adding to the illusion of its passage.
The earliest known critic of the play was diarist Samuel Pepys , who wrote in "it is a play of itself the worst that I ever heard in my life. Publisher Nicholas Rowe was the first critic to ponder the theme of the play, which he saw as the just punishment of the two feuding families.
In mid-century, writer Charles Gildon and philosopher Lord Kames argued that the play was a failure in that it did not follow the classical rules of drama: the tragedy must occur because of some character flaw , not an accident of fate.
Writer and critic Samuel Johnson , however, considered it one of Shakespeare's "most pleasing" plays. Actor and playwright David Garrick 's adaptation excluded Rosaline: Romeo abandoning her for Juliet was seen as fickle and reckless. Critics such as Charles Dibdin argued that Rosaline had been purposely included in the play to show how reckless the hero was and that this was the reason for his tragic end.
Others argued that Friar Laurence might be Shakespeare's spokesman in his warnings against undue haste. With the advent of the 20th century, these moral arguments were disputed by critics such as Richard Green Moulton : he argued that accident, and not some character flaw, led to the lovers' deaths. Before Mercutio's death in Act three, the play is largely a comedy.
When Romeo is banished, rather than executed, and Friar Laurence offers Juliet a plan to reunite her with Romeo, the audience can still hope that all will end well. They are in a "breathless state of suspense" by the opening of the last scene in the tomb: If Romeo is delayed long enough for the Friar to arrive, he and Juliet may yet be saved.
For example, when the play begins, Romeo is in love with Rosaline, who has refused all of his advances. Romeo's infatuation with her stands in obvious contrast to his later love for Juliet. This provides a comparison through which the audience can see the seriousness of Romeo and Juliet's love and marriage. Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo.
The formal language she uses around Paris, as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse, show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo.
Beyond this, the sub-plot of the Montague—Capulet feud overarches the whole play, providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end. He begins with a line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet , spoken by a Chorus. Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse , and much of it in strict iambic pentameter , with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays.
Friar Laurence, for example, uses sermon and sententiae forms and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech. For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form. Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline. That hatred manifests itself directly in the lovers' language: Juliet, for example, speaks of "my only love sprung from my only hate"  and often expresses her passion through an anticipation of Romeo's death.
When Tybalt kills Mercutio, Romeo shifts into this violent mode, regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate". The feud is also linked to male virility, as the numerous jokes about maidenheads aptly demonstrate. Other critics, such as Dympna Callaghan, look at the play's feminism from a historicist angle, stressing that when the play was written the feudal order was being challenged by increasingly centralised government and the advent of capitalism.
At the same time, emerging Puritan ideas about marriage were less concerned with the "evils of female sexuality" than those of earlier eras and more sympathetic towards love-matches: when Juliet dodges her father's attempt to force her to marry a man she has no feeling for, she is challenging the patriarchal order in a way that would not have been possible at an earlier time.
As Benvolio argues, she is best replaced by someone who will reciprocate. Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who, like Romeo, is having trouble creating offspring and who may be seen as being a homosexual. Goldberg believes that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an acceptable way.
In this view, when Juliet says " He had Romeo walk frequently by her house, "sometimes climbing to her chamber window", and wrote, "It happened one night, as love ordained, when the moon shone unusually bright, that whilst Romeo was climbing the balcony, the young lady A few decades later, Bandello greatly expanded this scene, diverging from the familiar one: Julia has her nurse deliver a letter asking Romeo to come to her window with a rope ladder, and he climbs the balcony with the help of his servant, Julia and the nurse the servants discreetly withdraw after this.
Leveen suggested that during the 18th century, David Garrick chose to use a balcony in his adaptation and revival of Romeo and Juliet and modern adaptations have continued this tradition.
Its many adaptations have made it one of his most enduring and famous stories. Scholar Gary Taylor measures it as the sixth most popular of Shakespeare's plays, in the period after the death of Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Kyd but before the ascendancy of Ben Jonson during which Shakespeare was London's dominant playwright.
The research findings show that the subtitling strategies applied in Romeo and Juliet movie are expansion, paraphrase, transfer, imitation, condensation, decimation, deletion, taming, and resignation.
Among those strategies; condensation is the most dominant one due to the limited space and subtitling time appearance because in the subtitling process, there should be a thrifty translation whereas, the accuracy of Romeo and Juliet subtitling depends on the context covering the text, both situation context and cultural context. Penelitian bersifat deskriptif kualitatif dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Obyek penelitian ini adalah kalimat bahasa Inggris yang diucapkan oleh para aktor dan aktris di film Romeo and Juliet sebagai teks sumber ST dan subtitling Indonesia sebagai teks sasaran TT.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa strategi subtitling yang diterapkan dalam film Romeo and Juliet ialah: ekspansi ,parafrase, transfer, imitasi, kondensasi penipisan decimation , penghapusan, pelembutan taming dan pengunduran resignation.
Di antara strategi-strategi tersebut kondensasi adalah yang paling dominan karena keterbatasan ruang subtitling dan ketersediaan waktu karena subtitling harus menghasilkan terjemahan yang hemat. Sedangkan akurasi subtitling film Romeo and Juliet tergantung pada konteks yang meliputi teks, baik konteks situasi dan konteks budaya.
Kata kunci: Strategi subtitling, ketepatan subtitling, terjemahan yang hemat Introduction Recently, movie translation or subtitling grows rapidly. There are two kinds of movie translation namely: dubbing and subtitling which have differences in both. Subtitling is truly different from dubbing. Similarly as dubbing, the purpose of subtitling is helping the viewers enjoy the films such as documenter movies, drama, and action and so on. Dubbing and subtitling are one of translation great works.
Firstly, they are done with translation process, and then continued by recording process or sticking process. From those phenomenon, this research focuses on 1 the equivalent meaning on subtitling of Romeo and Juliet movie viewed from the context situation and cultural situation covered the text, and 2 the translation strategies applied by the translator in translating Romeo and Juliet movie.
The Definition of Translation There are some translation definitions explored by the experts of translation. Some of them are Catford , Nida and Teber and Larson Nida and Taber said that translating consist of reproducing in the receptor language to the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, at first in meaning and secondly in term of style. While Larson 17 saw that translation is the replacement of meaning from source language SL into target language TL by using the form of the receptor target language.
From the definition of translation above, it can be concluded broadly, translation focuses on meaning equivalent. From this definition it can be inferred that meaning has a broad definition.
The meaning of the text depends on the situation context and cultural context. The meaning of the text is also influenced by the culture covering the text whether explicitly or implicitly. Explicitly, culture is a kind of artifact produced by the society such as clothes, foods, technology etc. Subtitling Important Rules Sugeng Hariyanto said that there are some important rules in subtitling such as the plot work, the movie terms, script and movie as a whole work.
Frame is a basic unit of the movie that is a set of shot; then some shots are combined into scene; some scenes are combined into scuents; and the last, some scuents combined into movie which are connected by the dialogues. Besides, subtitling is also composed by movie components such as soundtrack, music, effects, the tone of the actors, mimic and gesture, camera movement, distance, and montage cuts, fade-in, dissolve, and so on. Movie script refers to the source text that will be translated into target text.
There two kinds of scripts namely the original script and script purposed to the movie translator.
Movie as a whole work means that movie is the same as novel covered by certain society culture that makes the translator works harder because the translators must transfer the semantic and pragmatics meaning, and also the culture.
The Subtitling Difficulties Translating a movie is not an easy work. Language difficulty refers to culture reference, idioms, diction, humor and pragmatics meaning. Whereas culture difficulty refers to the lack of knowledge and experience that the translator has related to the culture habits done by the SL society. It is very difficult to translate an idiom because the limitedness equivalent meaning between source language and target language.
Then, the next problem that the translator has is related to humor teasing allusion and pragmatics meaning. Sugeng Haryanto said further that movie translator also gets difficulties because of limited time appearance and limited layout. There are some subtitling layout rules such as the translation should be at the monitor buttom, it just contains 2 lines in maximum, it only contains 35 characters for each lines, it must be Helvetica or Arial font without sheriff, the font color and the background must be in white, the text position is in the middle, and it must be right flat for the dialogue beginning without a dash.
Expansion Expansion means giving addition meaning in the target language. Transfer Transfer strategies are done by translating the source text literally. Imitation Imitation strategies are done by rewriting the source text into target text. Usually this strategy is done in translating the name of person or the name of place.
Transcription This strategy is done by rewriting the certain words because of the textual function how that language should be. For example, how the sentence in the source text pronounced can be seen in the subtitling. Condensation Condensation strategy is done by shortening the source text. In this strategy the subtitler or translator eliminates unimportant utterance. Decimation Decimation is an extreme condensation.
Taming Taming strategies is used to translate the rude or taboo words in order to be acceptable in target language. Resignation Resignation is done when there is no any solution in transferring the message from SL into TL. Research Methodology This research belongs to descriptive qualitative research with the aim to describe the certain cases. Research procedure is a map on how the research should be done, how to do it, and why it is done.
The researcher procedures belong to this research are data collecting, data analysis technique, and presentation stage. The data in this research is parallel bilingual corpus consisting of spoken text spoken by the actors and actress in Romeo and Juliet Movie as the source text ST and Indonesian subtitling appear in the monitor as the target text TT. There are some steps done in analyzing the data. At first, the researcher focuses on identifying the source text meaning profile and the equivalent meaning in target text then analyzing the equivalent meaning based on the situation context and cultural context.
Then, the second analysis is focused on the subtitling strategies used in Romeo and Juliet subtitling. The last stage of this research is composing and presenting the result of the research.
This research uses qualitative analysis strategy. In presentation stage, in making the conclusion verification the researcher is always eager to make clarification by having discussion with her colleges toward the truth test of the meaning appears in the data.
As explained before, there are two kinds of contexts surrounding the text, namely situation context and cultural context. Robert Greene , Groats-worth of Witte This figure that thou here seest put, It was for gentle Shakespeare cut, Wherein the graver had a strife With Nature, to out-do the life: O could he but have drawn his wit As well in brass, as he has hit His face; the print would then surpass All that was ever writ in brass: But since he cannot, reader, look Not on his picture, but his book.
Soul of the Age! The applause, delight, the wonder of our stage! My Shakespeare Thou art a monument, without a tomb, And art alive still while thy book doth live, And we have wits to read, and praise to give.
William Shakespeare He was not of an age, but for all time!
William Shakespeare I remember the players have often mentioned it as an honor to Shakespeare, that in his writing, whatsoever he penned, he never blotted out a line. My answer hath been, "Would he had blotted a thousand".
Ben Jonson , Timber: or Discoveries made upon Men and Matter There was ever more in him to be praised than to be pardoned. I , Preface. Shakespeare has united the powers of exciting laughter and sorrow not only in one mind but in one composition. Almost all his plays are divided between serious and Ludicrous characters and they sometimes produce sorrow and sometimes laughter.
That this is a practice contrary to the rules of criticism will be readily allowed; but there is always an appeal open from criticism to nature. Yet it must be at last confessed, that as we owe every thing to him [Shakespeare], he owes something to us; that, if much of his praise is paid by perception and judgment, much is likewise given by custom and veneration. We fix our eyes upon his graces, and turn them from his deformities, and endure in him what we should in another loath or despise.
And so sepulchr'd, in such pomp dost lie, That kings for such a tomb would wish to die. John Milton , "On Shakespeare" I never quite despair and I read Shakspeare — indeed I shall I think never read any other Book much [ He has left nothing to say about nothing or any thing.
Shakespeare led a life of Allegory; his works are the comments on it. Shakespeare is not our poet, but the world's; Therefore on him no speech! When I read Shakespeare I am struck with wonder That such trivial people should muse and thunder In such lovely language.
Lawrence , "When I read Shakespeare," from Pansies Yes, facts don't mean a thing, do they? What you want to believe, that's the only truth! Shakespeare was an Irish Catholic, for example. So he was.