Bloom's Modern Critical Views African American Poets: Wheatley– Tolson African American Poets: Hayden– Dove Edward Albe. JULIO CORTAZAR shoulders first, there, that's fine, and someone in a dust coat giving him a swallow of something soothing in the shadowy interior of the small. Translated by Gregory Rabassa, winner of the National Book Award for Translation, Horacio Oliveira is an Argentinian writer who lives in Paris with. .
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by Julio Cortázar. TRANSLATED FROM THE SPANISH BY. PAUL BLACKBURN. Originally published in English under the title. End of the Game and Other. PDF | The Argentine writer Julio Cortázar explains to a Cuban audience how a well-written short story can reach a wide variety of readers. Ontologia Fictiunii lui Julio goudzwaard.info Cristina Popescu. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the.
This is, so far, the earliest evidence of his writings and the only book he never allowed to be reprinted. His problem was not a poetic problem but one posed by an ambitious human realization, to which end the Poem should he the key. As much as he displays profuse and at times cryptic language and handles the sonnet form with the skill of a virtuoso, this poetry is still the probing of a poet attitudinizing, echoing the prestige and elegance of a polished dictionary, conjuring the spell of the old masters.
I believe that what happened to me was happening to many young writers. I felt compelled to prove that I knew many rare words and that I knew how to combine them in a surprising way.
The year, When I was the editor of a magazine named Los anales de Buenos Aires, I remember a tall young man presenting himself in the office and handing me a manuscript. I said I would read it, and he came back after a week. I told him it was excellent; my sister Norah illustrated it. The book was published at the insistence of a few close friends who read the stories in manuscript form.
I am referring, for example, to some of the stories of Bestiario. I knew nobody had written stories like those before in Spanish, at least in my country. There were others, the admirable tales by Borges, for instance, but what I was doing was different.
There are some stories whose subjects bring to mind those of Borges, sort of variations on a same theme; but even when that is the case, the common subject only underlines the differences. Both stories deal with a similar character the compadre as the city counterpart in courage and sense of honor to the gaucho in the countryside , both present a similar plot an infamous act that must be avenged , and both surprise the reader with an unexpected turn in the sequence of events leading to their denouement.
He himself has pointed out that What is told in a story should indicate by itself who is speaking, at what distance, from what perspective and according to what type of discourse.
The truth is that neither of them has much in common with the nineteenth-century European and American writers who, between and , produced the masterpieces of the fantastic genre.
Borges has said that everything that has happened to him is illusory and that the only thing real in his life is a library. We have dreamed it strong, mysterious, visible, ubiquitous in space and secure in time; but we have allowed tenuous, eternal interstices of unreason in its structure so we may know that it is false. Hence the countless references in his stories to authors and books, to theories and doctrines; hence the aura of the bookishness and intellection that pervades his work; and hence his constant insistence on his having said nothing new, because what he wrote was already written in other literatures.
The ingredients do not change, just as the number of colored glass bits contained in a kaleidoscope is always the same, but with each movement of the tube the symmetrical image does change.
Borges deals with human culture as if he were holding a kaleidoscope, but after his master stroke the image is no longer the same. How to transform oneself if one continues to use the same language Plato used? They were right, as any poet knows, but that was just a moment in the complicated peeling of the banana.
Result, more than one of them ate it with the skin still on. The surrealists hung from words instead of brutally disengaging 12 Jaime Alazraki themselves from them, as Morelli would like to do from the word itself. Language means residence in reality, living in a reality. We have to relive it, not reanimate it. He believes in a kind of marvelous reality here again the affinity with surrealism is obvious.
Yet, due to a long series of mistakes, it has remained concealed under a reality prefabricated by many centuries of culture, a culture in which there are great achievements but also profound aberrations, profound distortions.
In a sense, man made a mistake when he invented time. I went to see them in the aquarium at the Jardin des Plantes and stayed for hours watching them, observing their immobility, their faint movements. Now I am an axolotl. They have no difficulty in moving with the same freedom and ease in both.
This unbiased approach is in itself a profession of faith. The unstated assumption declares that the fantastic level is just as real or unreal, from a realist standpoint as the realist level. If one of them produces in us a surreal 14 Jaime Alazraki or fantastic feeling, it is because in our daily lives we follow logical notions similar to those that govern the realist mode. The neofantastic writer, on the other hand, ignores these distinctions and approaches both levels with the same sense of reality.
But there is nothing fragile in the texture of any of his stories. Quite the contrary. He also believes that with this change he moves to a new stage in his development as a writer. Fantasy for its own sake had stopped interesting me. By then I was fully aware of the dangerous perfection of the storyteller who reaches a certain level of achievement and stays on that same level forever, without moving on. I was a bit sick and tired of seeing how well my stories turned out.
And looking at myself meant looking at my neighbor, at man. Hopscotch traces the mandala through which the characters of the stories are constantly journeying.
Hopscotch seeks to understand those forces, and as such it represents the intellectual bow from which the stories were shot. His tales were fantastic responses to those problems and questions which occupied his mind at the time and which eventually found a masterful formulation in Hopscotch.
In the hand, in the newspaper, in time, in the air: everything full of holes, everything spongy, like a colander straining itself Nothing, a crack What is behind that door is a world that Johnny sees only on one occasion, through his music, but whose substance one glimpses throughout the narrative. A good example is the biography of Johnny written by Bruno: very well informed, very complete, very successful, but with one omission— the biographee.
But Bruno, Paris, Seuil, , pp. My translation. Michel Foucault, The Order of Things: El individuo y el otro. Los reyes, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, , p. The title may come from fragment 28 of Heraclitus: Subsequent page numbers refer to this edition. Las armas secretas, Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, , p. Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, , p. Hopscotch, Gregory Rabassa, tr. In his preface Gellius says the following about the composition of his book: Rolfe, tr.
The literary level is patently lower. Libro de Manuel was written quickly and was designed to reach a wide reading public. It is thus unfair to judge it exclusively according to the same purely literary criteria as his other novels, or in isolation from its context. A new discourse is articulated through another, more conventional one, which it uses but subverts and attempts to renew.
Repeatedly, however, he demands a great personal sense of responsibility in the writer if these ideas are not simply to embody escapism e. LR The general affirmation from the time of Rayuela is still basically valid: Padilla was arrested in by the Cuban authorities for anti-revolutionary attitudes: You are right, Fidel: But now I abandon their ideal world, their schemes, just now when I am shown the door of what I love, I am banned from defending it, right now I exercise my right to choose, to stand once more and more [than ever by your Revolution, my Cuba, in my own way CP Such statements cannot be ignored when considering the genesis of Libro de Manuel, nor the fact that the royalties were given to organizations defending political prisoners in Argentina.
The central mystery of the novel is a set of instructions given to the main character by a cigar-smoking Cuban which can only be known once they have been carried out.
But right from the start I realized that, paradoxically, if this was a book of our here and now, i. I am totally opposed to this option [ Reason is an ally of our aims, and it is up to us whether it is creative or destructive. The desire for such crimes, which was an irrational impulse, would never have become a bloody reality if it had not been programmed by rigorous reason. The irrational is never a collective danger per se; only when organized by reason can it engender inquisitions, torture techniques and death chambers.
Men exactly like you! A similar comment is made in Prosa del observatorio: A revolution must encompass everything: A writer, an artist, must use his imaginative capacity to defend, within the revolution, his right to imagine more and better.
It is perhaps in that word, imagination, where culture and revolution can really meet. In what is denominated the pre-Joda, they seriously shake the absolute faith of the Parisians in the infallibility of their government institutions by inserting old cigarette stubs in apparently untouched packets, violate their everyday order by effusively thanking the bus-driver for a pleasant drive,15 standing up to eat in elegant restaurants,16 and other similar Dadaist provocations.
But it is also a means of self-defence, a way of avoiding falling into the strategies used by the enemy and perhaps reproducing his ideology in a future socialist state: The pre-Joda is thus, in general, a continuation of the 48 Steven Boldy provocative activity of Marrast.
Throughout the novel, computers are an image of an alienated discourse: It demands that the sign of this discourse should be changed from negative to positive, turned upside-down in the way Oliveira transforms the meaning of piedad.
El que te dije aspires to a style which would not change key on approaching such subjects: He believes that the only way to express the indicible is in the form of an enigma: Both these elements are combined with a series of gallicisms in the following passage of Lonstein: A difficult issue is at stake in this paradoxical assertion, which is at the nerve centre of the formal tensions of the novel. Eco provides a clear introduction to the problem in his Opera aperta. A language is a system of predetermined probabilities.
Any information represents an element of disorder in the established code: The only way of transmitting this message is thus a dialectic between a conventional code and the message which threatens it: It becomes clear to him that although intelligibility demands the presence of the old code of expression, of behaviour , this code is likely to project into the future the alienated structures to be transcended: The problem is thus posed of communication through a medium which implies an alien view of the world.
His choice between the two alternatives available to him is unequivocal. This plot is almost a commonplace: The plot imposes a certain discipline on material which otherwise might take on a circularity that would exclude a wider reading public. His life is plagued with dualism and he is symbolically torn between two women: He himself realizes the difficulty of knowing whether his choices are made freely or dictated by unconscious taboos: In the cinema, there are two screens, an indication of the duality of his life.
A waiter approaches and menacingly informs him that a Cuban is demanding to see him. When he comes out from the interview with the Cuban Castro , he realizes that the scene has been cut in the dream, that he has been given a message to deliver, a mission, but he does not know what it is. The idea is also reminiscent of other works: Paradoxically, only by doing what he has to do will he be able to know what it is: The connotations of such a reversal are complex and work on different levels.
This is, of course, the position reached by Oliveira, largely through the example of la Maga. We cannot manage to produce integrated analytical thought. Our barrier of guts and blood is too dense. We think with our whole body, inside the problem. There is also a much simpler moral side to the issue. To renounce intellectual thought in favour of pure and purifying action and violence will transform this thought in the 54 Steven Boldy same way as Oliveira abandons la piedad conventional human sentiments in order to return to it in a freer, less alienated form: The question of what sort of causality it is which leads him straight to this destination remains.
El que te dije, again quoting St John, rejects such mysticism a priori: One must not forget that this reversal of traditional logic also contains a clear statement on revolutionary strategy—that revolutionary praxis and theory cannot be separated. Debray in his controversial Revolution in the Revolution? The lack of explicit revolutionary theorizing in Libro de Manuel is explained by el que te dije That must be why in this suburban night there are snails.
The stern in Los premios and the blind impulse of the eels through their life cycle to their origins in the Sargasso Sea in Prosa del observatorio have similar connotations.
We will later see the importance of a provincial garden in the trajectory of Oscar towards revolutionary commitment. Synthesis or schizophrenia? This inversion of a triangle formed by one man and two women into one formed by one woman and two men constitutes an important structural link with Rayuela: The parallel with la Maga is absolute: The synthesis achieved in Rayuela, symbolized and effected by the syncretism of Talita and la Maga, becomes in Libro de Manuel the synthesis of the individual and the universal and collective.
Not only can society as conceived by socialism not annul this concept of the individual, but aspires to develop him to such a point that all the negativity, all his demoniacal aspects which are exploited by capitalist society, will be transformed by a level of personality where the individual and collective dimensions will cease to confront and frustrate each other.
He proposes a violation of this prohibition: One has only to open it [ You must learn to wake up within your dream, impose your will on that oneiric reality of which up till now you have only passively been author, actor and spectator. He who succeeds in waking up to freedom within his dream will have opened the door and gained access to a plane of being which will at last be a novum organum UR b 50—1.
The incitement to disobedience refers to prohibitions, taboos and censorship on various levels: The rebellion and turning upside-down of 62, closely connected with the theme of monsters, thus reappears.
The monsters of Libro de Manuel are seen, if with less mystery, with greater clarity than elsewhere. El que te dije is, nevertheless, a complex character and is presented with some sympathy. His personal position is very liberal. He has at his disposal all the information on the revolutionary enterprise, registered in a chaotic pile of index cards and scraps of paper.
One thing was clear [ I know that it is impossible but I also know its deep causes, the refusal of literature conceived as a humanistic, architectonic project, the need for a previous opening, that freedom demanded by everything I am about to do and, to that end, there can be no clear idea, no formal plan. C 18 Demands, however, of immediate intelligibility and clarity are made on el que te dije as chronicler of the Joda.
The personal aspects of the narration can but be neglected or distorted by el que te dije due to his very nature as a collective double. More importantly, the ideological character of seemingly neutral concepts such as memory is carefully brought out. El que te dije is not opposed to the conclusion of others such as Oscar who come to see the revolution as a wide, all-embracing movement: Libro de Manuel 61 But el que te dije works deductively, starting with the theory.
Moreover, the pudor inherent in his constitution prevents him from writing in the way described. Consequently, at certain points, he excludes the personal analogies which are so important in the work: Similarly, he refuses to accept any relation between the memories of the garden of his childhood and the present: His words curiously echo the last moments of Oliveira: El que te dije and Oscar There is in Oscar a progressive understanding of his own situation and of the forces which dictate his revolutionary action.
The reader is thus cleverly placed in the same position as Oscar. El que te dije tries to explain the trajectory of Oscar in one of his many diagrams, the only virtue of which is that it explains absolutely nothing, rather like the taxonomy of Ceferino Piriz. He has the impression that something is wrong or missing in his understanding.
The suggestion is that there is also some form of censorship at work in the article. To explain the reaction of the girls by the effect on them of the advertisements for dances is equivalent to limiting the motives of a revolutionary to the theory of dialectical materialism. Indeed, it is suggested that such seemingly irrelevant images can dictate the whole course of a life: Marcos, as we noted earlier, refers to el que te dije as the Linnaeus or Ameghino of the Joda.
The barriers within the novel are not absolute, but created in part by the narrative itself. We can thus see how memories from the past, enclosing an image of the potentiality of the future, can break through the barrier of censorship.
The role of analogy in the discovery of the unconscious or repressed motivating force, and in the actual functioning of this force, is essential: Its importance is also stressed in Prosa del observatorio: Here as elsewhere, the analogy often works through word play, as when Oscar is reminded of the full moon luna llena on eating a croissant medialuna: Whereas el que te dije understands progressively less of what is happening until his final break-down, Oscar comes to a privileged understanding of the wide, often individual and irrational motives behind his commitment.
The issue in Libro de Manuel is centred round the fear of the recurrence of repressive structures in society after the revolution.
The strong link between political and sexual revolution is implicitly expressed in the novel, and incorporated into the structures of its text: Sexual liberation in the novel is thus not just a luxury of the revolution, but a necessary condition to its lasting success. Pointing out the cultural backwardness of the old Russia, he stresses the need in the future for a theory of sexual revolution.
In Eros and Civilization, the latter makes a fundamental development in the study of the survivals to which Reich refers. After Freud, he stresses the correspondence between the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic, the repetition in the development of the individual of the stages of the evolution of civilization.
Similarly, when the young men revolted against the patriarchal primal horde, where one leader held all the women yet protected the men, the dominant structures of the previous society were repeated, again through guilt, in the collective superego or superstructure.
The repetition of this process from generation to generation has the effect of progressively strengthening the repressive laws of the superego.
For Freud, repression, which is used as a blanket term, is inherent in the very nature of civilization, and the process described above becomes a vicious circle. Eros is the tendency towards complete oneness with the world, but the erogenous zones of the body originally the whole body have been gradually reduced to the genitals in order to leave the rest of the body free, as a tool, for the tasks of society.
Masturbation in Libro de Manuel is equivalent to the Minotaur in Los reyes. As in the case of the Minotaur, the only way to kill this ogre to destroy its monstrosity is to accept it. This acceptance would have the effect of turning the ogre into a prince like the Minotaur, son of the queen Pasiphae: To tear Onan from the inner mass was to kill at least one of the ogres and even more, to metamorphose him by bringing him into contact with the daytime and the open, to de-ogre him, to exchange his sad clandestine coat for feathers and bells [ This distortion of events is parallel to that effected by the authorities at the end of Los premios.
There is the same suggestion in Libro de Manuel as elsewhere that the monsters preserve the memory of the origins and that only the experience of these origins can revitalize the future. Children have been an image of the origins throughout the novels, and this novel is explicitly written for baby Manuel. The tender description of the rudimentary masturbation of Manuel is an image of the innocence lost to the guilty world-view of the adults looking on. Francine comments on their visit to the slum areas: But the experience is, at the time, presented as a partial failure in that on the following morning both feel guilty: The reference to Eve suggests that guilt in Libro de Manuel retains from 62 Christian connotations.
We are also reminded that it is Jehovah who strikes down Onan for masturbation The dualism of his act, as at the same time a liberation and simple escapism, is inherent in the nature of the 68 Steven Boldy hotel as an institution. It is the close relation in Libro de Manuel, as in 62, between guilt and death which creates the deep link between the two episodes.
Both transgressions of sexual taboo in the novel are described as descents to Hades. The descent is always Libro de Manuel 69 effected, as we know, to bring someone back to life. Though no one is actually dead at this point in the novel, the two characters who could be symbolically recovered are Manuel and Ludmilla.
Anxiety is expressed at various points about the safety of Manuel, which links him with Jorge in Los premios. Evidence from 62 points in the same direction. Referred to henceforth as CP. Benedetti, Letras del continente mestizo Montevideo, , The Left-Wing Alternative trans.
Pomerans; Harmondsworth, , Cohn-Bendit, Obsolete Communism, This is also true of the literary code of verisimilitude which, as Sollers points out, is highly ideological: Eco, Opera aperta: Opera aperta, Bar Don Juan Rio de Janeiro, , In an interview with F.
St John of the Cross, Obras escogidas, Obras escogidas, Reich, The Sexual Revolution London, , In Prosa del observatorio p. Idealization is a hidden apotropaism; one idealizes whenever there is a secret fear to be exorcised. The mother of life is at the same time the mother of death; she is masked in the ugly demonesses of famine and disease. When I was a Schoolboy I though[t] a fair Woman a pure Goddess, my mind was a soft nest in which some one of them slept, though she knew it not.
Moreover, he longs for the feminine presence, yet he feels extremely awkward in the company of most ordinary women he meets. Further in the same letter, he tells Bailey: In a letter of 13 October we read: I cannot exist without you—I am forgetful of everything but seeing you again—my Life seems to stop here—I see no further. I have a sensation at the present moment as though I was dissolving—I should be exquisitely miserable without the hope of soon seeing you I could die for you.
My Creed is Love and you are its only tenet. It is a passion that threatens with the dissolution of the self, and yet it is a state that, once known, cannot allow the poet to fall comfortably back into his former existence.
He must pursue the state of ecstasy even at the cost of his own destruction. Only in the image of a climactic death can Keats resolve the opposing emotions aroused by Fanny: Both poems display the same central idea, intimately related to the feeling in the previously quoted letter from Keats to Fanny: The sorceress disappears, but her memory remains to drive her victims insane and drain the life away from them.
Keats and Poe, the objects of this study, were no exceptions. As previously discussed, Circe is the archetypal manifestation of the negative anima and, as such, subject to defeat by a hero capable of outwitting her or taming her through the body. I am at such times too much occupied in admiring to be awkward or on a tremble.
I forget myself entirely because I live in her. Violent rejection? Here is the passage in question: Notwithstanding your Happiness and your recommendation I hope I shall never marry. Then instead of what I have described, there is a Sublimity to welcome me home—The roaring of the wind is my wife and the Stars through the window pane are my Children. I feel more and more every day, as my imagination strengthens, that I do not live in this world alone but in a thousand worlds These things combined with the opinion I have of the generality of women—who appear to me as children to whom I would rather give a Sugar Plum than my time, form a barrier against Matrimony which I rejoice in.
He presents Fanny as a vampire who will attempt—even unawares—to suck the life out of a helpless, enthralled Keats. He observes that Fanny will not be motivated to destroy Keats by any particular cruelty of her own, but by her very feminine nature: And so he observes: Sin culpa de Fanny; nada que reprocharle, pobre muchacha. IJK, p. Glaucus falls in love with the nymph, Scylla, who rejects him.
Seized with despair, Glaucus calls Circe to his aid. She, however, offers him her own love instead, trapping him in a net of love-dreams he cannot break away from: Who could resist? Who in this universe? She took me like a child of suckling time, And cradled me in roses. III, ll. Sir Dainty! Woman as Circe the Magician 81 So, fairy-thing, it shall have lullabies Unheard of yet: As Neumann observes, sensuous ecstasy, or the ecstasy derived from drugs, alcohol, and other stimulants, is initially positive, since these substances set the unconscious in motion and may lead to transformation.
Glaucus, unable to keep a hold on himself, regresses to the position of the child regarding the mother, to the stage of the suckling who depends on the mother for the satisfaction of his needs. Whether in ancient Greece or twentieth-century Buenos Aires, the situation is one and the same: Moreover, the reaction of Mario is in strict accordance to the myth: The means she employs to ensnare and trap her victims—magical liquors and potions she stuffs into candies and feeds to her suitors—are also in harmony with the dynamics of the archetype.
Medicines as well as poisons are agents of transformation and manifest that process in themselves the sequence from plant to juice, juice to elixir, etc. Circe provides her victims with the positive ecstasy of sensuality before she turns them into animals. Not so Delia, who is totally destructive and absorbing.
He sees the family cat dying in a corner of the kitchen, its eyes perforated with wooden splinters. On the other hand, the chocolate is symbolic of Delia herself; the repulsive, parasitic insect in her hides under an attractive exterior. Neumann observes that these preMycenean idols—dating back to B. The ancient religions of Asia Minor were never fully suppressed; in the ensuing syncretism, primitive rituals were preserved. Even though Byzantium, the City of the Goddess, became Constantinople, the City of the Virgin, Byzantine priests preserved a terrible, more ancient ritual: The latter, however, kills Somoza in self-defense, accomplishing thus the ritual to Haghesa.
At the end of the story, a frenzied public destroys the theater and overwhelms the conductor and the members of the orchestra. Finally, the woman in red emerges licking her lips. Evidently, the moonstruck, nearly hysterical girls have more than a merely social symbolism.
Keats seems to have conceived the poem in a hypnotic mood, half asleep. I see a lilly on thy brow, With anguish moist and fever dew; And on thy cheeks a fading rose Fast withereth too. Her description is hallowed with the supernatural aura distinctive of all manifestations of the archetype of the Magna Mater. In the dream, the knight sees As I previously observed, the Belle Dame possesses a deadly character that, transcending the qualities of the negative anima, could identify her with the archetypal Terrible Mother, whose function it is to extinguish consciousness and take back to herself, through death, that which had attempted to break away from her domination.
We can hear echoes of this poem in several of his later creations. Finally, Lucho breaks the lamp as she reaches for it.
In the ensuing darkness, Dina turns into an aggressive maenad, attempting to blind and castrate Lucho. The ambiguousness implied in the character of the Belle Dame, who represents both Love and Death, is more explicit in the character of the lamia.
In The Fall of Hyperion: Lycius, a scholar, is so concerned with his ideal visions that he even misses the concretion of his own desires when he passes her on the road. I, ll. Although her cruelty is evinced by the calm premeditation with which she makes Lycius swoon by threatening him with the withdrawal of her affections I, ll.
Unlike the Belle Dame, who rends her lovers and then forsakes them, Lamia submits to Lycius and remains beside him. The tragic outcome of the poem is indirectly blamed on Lycius. As Lamia, grown weak and frightened at the thought of losing Lycius, pleads with him, trying to change his mind, his behavior towards her takes a sadistic turn. The initial relationship is now reversed: He thereat was stung, Perverse, with stronger fancy to reclaim Her wild and timid nature to his aim: Besides, for all his love, in self despite, Against his better self, he took delight Luxurious in her sorrows, soft and new.
II, ll. Lamia ends with the death of Lycius as the lamia fades away under the gaze of the philosopher Apollonius. In it Oliveira returns to a scene of his childhood; there, he sees his sister, the garden, the house of his childhood days.
La Maga is presented as a concrete woman with a good share of alltoo-human stupidity; yet, the author clothes her with a supernatural aura that is many times stressed throughout the novel. Moreover, her very name is deliberately symbolic: As Dr. As Pola-Paris she appears as the Earth, or the provider of sensuous pleasure, while la Maga-Isis appears primarily as the subject of inspiration.
Like Lycius, Horacio feels he must go on to something else; unlike Lamia, la Maga offers no resistance to his desire to live his own life and engage in concerns other than herself.
Most often he is with the members of the Club, with or without la Maga, or with his other mistress, Pola, with whom he has an affair with the knowledge and apparent consent of la Maga. As Oliveira feels the call of the outside world, from which he fears la Maga will separate him, he resorts to a sadistic behavior against her, just as Lycius had regarding Lamia.
Yet their perverseness is, essentially, of a different nature.
Such had been the effect attained by Keats in Lamia. Yet, as soon as she leaves, Oliveira literally falls apart, expressing his longing for her. Even though Oliveira originally intended to desert la Maga in order to preserve his freedom and pursue his literary ambitions, after she leaves he betrays that very freedom by setting up housekeeping with the foolish Gekrepten and nearly abandons all literary concerns, absorbed by the haunting memory of la Maga.
I believe, however, that we must limit ourselves to what is expressed in the text itself. The patients, however, demand the death of a dog as a necessary condition before they grant approval. Modelo para armar, where the archetype of the Terrible Mother is further elaborated. Later, she tells him: Like Lycius, Juan is manipulated by forces he can neither understand nor control.
Juan is in love with a symbol: Like Lycius, Juan becomes obsessed with his vampiress, almost disregarding the rest of the world. Lycius asks the gods for a dream woman; once his wish is granted, he wants to impose his dream on the diurnal world and is destroyed by his folly. Rather than being saved, the hero becomes doomed; all he can do is await the process of his disintegration.
IJK, pp. Princeton University Press, , p. Evert, p. Macmillan, , pp. Aileen Ward, John Keats: The Making of a Poet New York: Compass-Viking, , pp. Atlantic-Little, Brown, , pp. Rollins, I, In Keats and Shakespeare London: I should like her to ruin me, and I should like you to save me Rollins, II, — The letter of 19 October expresses a similar feeling: Rollins, II, Andrea Dykes New York: Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, , pp.
As for Keats, the negative reception of Endymion has become legendary. The Living Year New York: Oxford University Press, , pp. Minerva Press, , p. These critics speculate about such a possibility. Rollins, I, — See, for instance, Murry, Keats, pp. Freudian psychology generally establishes a connection between the eyes and the male genitalia.
Even the noblest parents were not above mutilating their sons to help their advancement Meridian, , pp. Gittings, John Keats, p. Murry, Keats, p. University of Chicago Press, Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols, trans.
Jack Sage New York: Philosophical Library, , pp. New York: Jung, Symbols of Transformation, trans. Hull, 2nd ed. V of The Collected Works of C. Jung, Symbols of Transformation, p. The difficult interpretation of the whole of Rayuela requires great participation by readers. The meaning resides in the articulation of what is between the signs; always, of course, starting from the sign. Jean-Paul Sartre writes: Nothing is accomplished if the reader does not put himself from the very beginning and almost without a guide at the height of this silence.
A study of the names of the characters in Rayuela shows that even though there are examples of allegory, the novel as a whole is not allegorical. Names such as these certainly suggest correlated order but, despite their symbolic qualities, they do not, taken together, form a single system. Readers are therefore not encouraged to interpret the novel on the basis of a pre-existing reference related to the novel through characters; the names of characters in Rayuela are not a link between its sense and its reference.
The names of La Maga and Horacio encourage readers to look for secondary meaning, while names such as Rocamadour and Gregorovius remind us that the secondary meaning is not to be found in the outside world. The organizing principle in Rayuela is a metaphor rather than allegory. Consider the following line: The meaning of the line is so much more than the subject matter.
These new connections are usually found more easily in a poem than in a novel, simply because a poem is shorter. Oliveira explains the relationship between An Interpretation of Rayuela Based on the Character Web characters and words: This does not mean that there is no unity in his text.
It wishes to synthesize all elements of life.
Single elements form a unity, as in a mosaic where a single picture is formed by the fragments; but the fragments also stand as individual pieces, with a noticeable space between them. Bakhtin explains how writing can achieve the simultaneity of coexisting forces. The essence of polyphony is precisely in the fact that the voices remain independent and, as such, are combined in a unity of a higher order than a homonymy.
These independent voices are the voices of the characters in the novel. Even then it is very difficult to grasp the totality because the relationship between the parts and the whole in Rayuela is much more complex than it is in medieval allegory.
In one of his books Morelli talks about a Neapolitan who spent years sitting in the doorway of his house looking at a screw on the ground. The fellow dropped dead of a stroke and as soon as the neighbours arrived the screw disappeared. One of them has it now. The narrator, who is probably Oliveira, comments: In doing this they undermine the work itself, or a smaller sign within a work.
They are different and one at the same time. Oliveira explains this paradox in his understanding of La Maga, who is simultaneously a person and a poetic image. He says: Etienne explains: Sula siente, basta tener el valor de estirar la mano en la oscuridad. You can feel it, all you need is the courage to stick your hand into the darkness.
Consequently, the place of the reader becomes similar to that of a character.
MacAdam points out that there is not yet an interpretation of Rayuela as a whole in which the reader distances himself or herself after having analysed each individual part of the novel. Furthermore, he tells us that La Maga and Pola complement each other in their relationship to Oliveira. Readers soon realize that not only these but all of the characters function together; they form a picture of a complete human being, and reveal the relationship between an individual and the human collective.
The form of the novel complements the content. Without the others Oliveira is nothing; without him they are incomplete. Their interrelationship can best be seen in the board scene. The board scene, in the middle of the novel, is the seed from which the novel Rayuela grew. But this route is too long; furthermore, it is meaningless because it has been repeated too often. Consequently, Oliveira and Traveler, his double, invent a new, logical, and entertaining way to do the job: I imagine you love the beautiful wardrobe in your bedroom, with its great swinging door, and the bare shelves awaiting my clothes.
It must seem impossible; not even Sara would believe it. By day they sleep. There are ten of them. They sleep by day. I take the keys to the bedroom with me when I go to work.
When she cleans the room, between nine and ten, I make noise in the living room, I stick on a Benny Carter record that charges the whole house, and since Sara, too, loves saetas and pasodobles, the wardrobe seems silent, and perhaps it is, as then the rabbits repose in the quiet of night.
I let them out, let them launch their frisky assault on the room, briskly sniffing at the clover hidden in my pockets and now dotted about the carpet, an ephemeral lace they stir and ravish in an instant. Almost all of them white. They raise their little heads towards the lights in the living room, the three fixed suns of their days, they who love the light since their night is bereft of moon, stars and streetlights.
They gaze upon their triple sun and are happy. I came to this house to rest, you may recall. What a relief this office is, with the shouting, the orders, Royal typewriters, vicepresidents and mimeographs! I just got a phone call, it was my friends concerned by the fact that I never have even one evening free anymore, Luis asking me out for a walk or Jorge with a spare concert ticket.
I barely dare turn them down, I tell long, flimsy tales of poor health, translations running late, to put them off. And when I get back and take the short ride up in the lift, between the first and second floor I inevitably contrive to convince myself of the vain hope that none of this is real. I do what I can to try to stop them from ruining your things.
Were you particularly fond of your lamp with the porcelain base and the knights and butterflies?