Reviewing Chemistry Student Edition A Glencoe ProgramThis booklet was written by The Princeton Review, the nation's. Reviewers Each teacher reviewed selected chapters of Chemistry: Matter and Change and provided feedback and suggestions for improving the effectiveness . EPUB, PDF, and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: What are some changes in matter that are essential to daily life?.
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Ms. Zaunbrecher's High School Chemistry Class, Lafayette High School. Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-. Chemistry Matter And Change Study - [Free] Chemistry Matter And Change Study [PDF]. [EPUB] As you begin your study of chemistry—the.
When should you read the label on a chemical container? What should you do when you have completed an assignment in the lab? What should you do if a chemical comes in contact with your skin?
What should you do before entering the lab? List at least three things. What kind of clothing should NOT be worn in the lab? What is the proper way to prepare an acid solution? All CFCs are synthetic chemicals. For each statement below.
This layer is called the 2 up is called the 3. CFC is another name for a chlorofluorocarbon. This level contains a protective layer. The ozone forms a layer around Earth.
The next layer. CFCs were developed as replacements for toxic refrigerants. CFCs are made up of carbon. Without ozone. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. In your textbook. The thinning of the ozone layer. CFCs usually react readily with other chemicals.
Study Guide Chemistry: Scientists measure the amount of matter in terms of mass. Define each term. Use each term only once. Subtle differences in weight exist at different locations on Earth.
Made of Matter Not Made of Matter 4. Your mass on the Moon would be smaller than your mass on Earth. Inorganic chemistry Answer the following questions. Physical chemistry Compare the macroscopic world with the submicroscopic world. Biochemistry Analytical chemistry Column A Column B The study of matter that does not contain organic chemicals The study of the matter and processes of living things The study of the components and composition of substances Why are chemists interested in the submicroscopic description of matter?
The study of carbon-containing chemicals The study of the behavior and changes of matter and the related energy changes For each branch of chemistry in Column A. TH conclusions Facts of nature accepted as truth 1. Refers to mass. Hypothesis supported by many experiments RY EO 3. Refers to physical characteristics such as color. Changes in value based on the value of the controlled variable Study Guide Chemistry: A variable controlled by the experimenter c.
For each item in Column A. Write your answers in the spaces below the concept map. The act of gathering information e. Column A Column B 6.
Use the words below to complete the concept map. Molina and Rowland concluded that chlorine.
In the space at the left. Molina and Rowland thought that these interactions produced a chemical that could break down chlorine. Molina and Rowland examined interactions that occur in the stratosphere. A hypothesis is a n a. To test their data. Molina and Rowland used a model. Molina and Rowland developed a hypothesis. Their hypothesis was that CFCs break down in the stratosphere due to interactions with ultraviolet light.
A control is a a. A theory is a n a. Based on their data. A constant is a factor that a. What do scientists usually do when a scientific problem first arises? Seeks to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself 3. Was conducted by Molina and Rowland In your textbook. What kinds of clothing should not be worn in the lab? Which type of research would you be more interested in working in—pure research or applied research? Is undertaken to solve a specific problem 2.
What is technology? Answer the following questions. For each description below. Is used to find CFC replacements 4. A systematic approach used in all scientific study a. A chemical made up of chlorine. Column A Column B 1. Any substance with a definite composition d. Anything that takes up space and has mass b. A chemical that protects organisms from UV radiation c. A visual. The act of gathering information 8. The study of matter and the changes it undergoes 7. A judgment based on the information obtained during an experiment 9.
The practical use of scientific research f. Which of the following is a set of controlled observations that tests a hypothesis? Add the water to the acid all at once. Chapter Assessment Chemistry: Explain the relationship between CFCs and the depletion of the ozone layer.
Add the water to the acid very slowly. Add the acid to the water all at once. The branch of chemistry that focuses on carbon-containing chemicals is called a. At the end of an experiment. List three safety precautions you can take before entering the laboratory. How should you prepare an acid solution? Which of the following is NOT matter? What effects might the ozone hole have on humans and other organisms? Add the acid to the water very slowly. Researchers look for a vaccine to prevent AIDS infection.
Researchers study the components of living cells. A researcher works on ways to improve agricultural yields. A researcher designs a more efficient internal-combustion engine. A researcher analyzes different compounds that might be sources of cancer drugs.
A researcher observes chimpanzees in their natural habitat to learn about their behavior. What conclusion can be made based on the predicted data? Write a hypothesis scientists might test based on the graph. The graph below compares the predicted chlorine concentrations in the stratosphere with and without the phase-out of CFCs.
What does the graph predict will happen to chlorine concentrations if CFCs are phased out?
More than countries agreed to phase out the production of the chemicals. What is the independent variable in these predictions? What is the dependent variable in these predictions? The chemist decides to apply the following concentrations of phosphorus to the corn plants: What qualitative data is the chemist likely to collect over the course of her experiment?
What is the dependent variable? What hypothesis might the chemist be testing? She knows that phosphorus stimulates plant growth. Draw a table that the chemist might use to record her data over the course of her experiment. She decides to test the effects of different phosphorus concentrations on corn plants over a day period.
What quantitative data is the chemist likely to collect over the course of her experiment? Based on the graph. What subsequent experiment might the chemist want to conduct to build on her experiment?
SAT Subject Test: Chemistry Short Answer Answer each question with complete sentences.
Extended Response Answer each question with complete sentences. The curved surface is called a meniscus. Measure the mass of the object using a balance. Materials balance. Your teacher will identify each object as A. Note that a washer is similar to a short cylinder with a hole through it. Measure and record the final volume in your data table. Obtain several unknown objects from your teacher. Calculate Use the initial and final volume readings to calculate the volume of each mystery object.
Create a data table to record your observations. Measure and record the initial volume in your data table. Because the surface of the water in the cylinder is curved.
Tilt the graduated cylinder. Record the mass and the identity of the object in your data table. Add about mL of water to a graduated cylinder. Calculate Use the calculated volume and the measured mass to calculate the density of each unknown object. Be sure not to cause a splash. You can find the volume of an irregular solid by displacing water.
Prepare all written materials that you will take into the laboratory. A forensics technician claims she can determine if the coin was minted before without altering the coin in any way. Large objects cannot be placed in water to determine their volume.
Determine a procedure that could be used to calculate the density of such an object. What would be the impact on density of increasing mass while keeping volume constant?
Increasing the amount of the heavier element in an object would increase the density of the object. Be sure to include safety precautions and procedure notes.
Do you expect the pre pennies or the post pennies would have the higher density? Review the equation for density. What was the make-up of pennies before ? How would you expect the density of pre pennies compare to pennies made post? Between and ? AThe year the coin was minted is important to the case. Use two points on each line to calculate the slope. Calculate Graph total mass verses total volume for the pre and post. After five trials there will be 25 pennies in the graduated cylinder.
Class 2 Review the equation to calculate percent error. Repeat steps 3 through 7. Pour about mL of water into the graduated the mass again. Plot and label two lines on the graph. Procedure 1.
Cleanup and Disposal Pour the water from the graduated cylinder down the drain. Dry the pennies with a paper towel. Make and Use Graphs 28 Chemistry: Measure the mass of the plastic cup. Record all measurements in your data table.
Add 5 pre pennies to the cup. Record the actual volume. Repeat steps 5 and 6 four times. Make and Use Graphs Draw a best-fit line through each set of points.
Add the 5 pennies to the graduated cylinder. Determine the percent error of each average. Verifying the slopes of the lines give you the density of the pre pennies and density of the post pennies. Apply 6. Are they consistent? If not. Error Analysis Determine the percent error in the density of each coin. Inquiry Extension Compare your results with those from the rest of the class.
Infer Can you determine if a penny was minted before or after if you know only its mass? Explain how the relationship among volume. Calculate a class average density of the pre— pennies and the density of the post— pennies.
July The Economist. Section 2. Exchange rates fluctuate daily. The ones shown on the transparency are for July 15, Show your work when necessary. How much does the portable radio cassette player cost in U.
The German cones sell for 1. Which cone costs you more U. Suppose on January 15, , the exchange rates have changed as shown to the right. Use these exchange rates to answer questions 5 and 6. A video game costs French francs on January 15, What is its price in U. Has the price risen or dropped since July 15, ? A Swiss shopper pays 12 Swiss francs for a candle.
A German shopper pays 12 German marks for the identical candle. In golf, a player tries to use the fewest swings, or strokes, of a club to hit a ball into a series of holes. The player keeps score by counting the number of strokes used for each hole. The lower the number of strokes used, the better the score.
Par is a term that refers to the target score for a particular hole. It is the number of strokes that a player is expected to use to hit the ball into that hole. A player whose score deviates consistently from par at each hole is more precise than one whose score deviates inconsistently.
Which product has the best sound quality? Which has the poorest sound quality? What kind of graph is this? What variables are compared in the graph? Which product is the best deal? Which is the worst deal? If there are no limits on the amount of money you can spend. Which product costs the most? The least? Based on the data shown. Which group do most Compare the responses of the general population with those of How are they alike?
How are they different? Make a graph that compares the political affiliations of What kind of graph is shown on the transparency?
What does the circle represent? Label the appropriate parts of your graph. As Democrats? What kind of graph did you make? What is the greatest difference between the responses of the general population and those of Math Skills Transparency Worksheets Chemistry: Political Supporters Political affiliation Percent of general population who identify with the affiliation Republican 25 Democrat 31 Independent 36 Other party 8 Source: The microwave frequency given off by a cesium atom 7.
Complete the following table. For each SI unit in Column A. Use Table 2—2 in your textbook to arrange the following prefixes in order from largest to smallest. A platinum-iridium cylinder that is stored at constant temperature and b. Column A Column B 5. A cube whose sides all measure exactly one meter d.
Length In your textbook. Mass 3. List the symbols and factors that the following prefixes represent. How are degrees Celsius converted to kelvins? How many centimeters are in a meter?
How many grams are in a kilogram? What is the difference between a base unit and a derived unit? Which temperature scale will you use for your experiments in this class? Is this an SI unit? What is density? How many liters are in a megaliter? What is the three-part process for problem solving?
What is dimensional analysis? Complete the following dimensional analysis problems. Convert 5 meters into centimeters. Convert 50 kilograms into grams. What is a conversion factor? Circle the figures that are written in scientific notation. Change the following data into scientific notation. Convert 55 kilometers per hour into meters per second.
Convert 5 liters into kiloliters. Convert 5 centimeters into meters. You may use both terms for some figures. Which of the following is most likely to produce data that are not precise? The difference between an accepted value and an experimental value is called a n a. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. When you calculate percent error.
If a term does not apply to a figure. If two measurements are very close to each other. Use the terms precise and accurate to describe the following figures. The ratio of an error to an accepted value is called a n a. The numeral 9. Round the following to four significant figures.
All final to the right of the decimal place are significant. Round The digits that are reported in an answer are called. Complete the following calculations. Zeros that act as are not significant. Round off the answers to the correct number of significant figures. When you convert to. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the statements. Determine the range of the data that needs to be plotted for each axis. Give the graph a title. Sequence the following steps.
Label each kind of graph shown. Answer the following questions about the graphs. Plot the data points. Average precipitation inches 1. Write 2 beside the second step. Identify the independent and dependent variables. During which month of the year does Jacksonville usually get the most precipitation? Write 1 beside the first step in plotting a line graph. Choose the ranges for the axes.
What percent of the sources of chlorine in the stratosphere are CFCs? Number and label each axis. Refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another 2. A means of expressing numbers as a multiple of two factors: A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an 5.
The SI base unit for mass is the Refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value 7. The SI derived unit for volume is the. The SI base unit for length is the A method of problem-solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter. A visual display of data that may include plotting data on x. The SI base unit of time is the. The SI base unit of temperature 9. The ratio of an error to an accepted value d.
A ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units 3. You live 6 kilometers from your school. How many seconds are there in a millisecond? In an answer that has four significant figures. Solve the following problem: The number 1. Show your work when a calculation is needed.
The prefix deci. How many meters do you live from school? How many nanograms are in 34 g? The liter is the base unit of density. What can you conclude about the figure? The answer is too small to be written in scientific notation. It has three significant figures. To be precise. You are asked to write your answer in scientific notation. You calculate that It has six significant figures. You are asked to round your answer to four significant figures.
You should round the 1 up to 2 because it is followed by a 5. It is not possible to be both accurate and precise at the same time. To be accurate. The arrow locations represent both high accuracy and good precision. It is not possible to know how many significant figures are in an answer without knowing its percent error. Which answer is correct? The arrow locations represent precision. You calculate the following answer to a problem: Use the following figure for questions 1 and 2.
The arrow locations represent neither accuracy nor precision. What can you conclude about your answer? The arrows have been thrown accurately toward the bulls-eye. Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic costs three times as much as aluminum. What kind of racket would you download? Explain your answer. Assume that you have no limit on the amount of money you can spend on a tennis racket.
The graphs below show some of the advantages and disadvantages of different materials that are used in tennis racket frames. Make a graph to present the relative cost of these materials. Nylon costs twice as much as aluminum. Which material is the strongest? Which material is the stiffest?
Tennis rackets can be made of a number of different materials. But it also needs to be lightweight. Use the graphs to answer the questions. Is steel a good material for a tennis racket frame? Follow the rules for significant figures and rounding for your answers.
Which 3. The student compares her data to the following chart in the back of her textbook. Compare the data collected for each trial and each sample in Data Table 1. Use Data Table 1 to answer the questions below.
Based on the data given. Can she identify Samples A. Her data is listed in Data Table 1. Assume that Sample A is copper. What information would you suggest the student obtain so that she can more accurately identify the samples? Which sam- ple s did the student measure accurately? Sample B is nickel. What advice would you give this student to produce more precise and accurate data next time?
What does this tell you about conclusions drawn from the data? What kind of graph would best compare the densities of the three samples?
Explain any differences you might observe. Work the pointed end of the wick into the hole in the center of the round filter paper. Make a concentrated ink spot in the center of the paper by firmly pressing the tip of the pen or marker onto the paper.
Materials 9-oz wide-mouth plastic cups 2. Use a sharp object to create a small hole. Many types of substances can be separated and analyzed using this technique. Record the number of distinct dyes you can identify on a drawing of the round filter paper. Label the color bands. When the water has moved to within about 1 cm of the edge of the paper about 20 minutes.
Analysis 1. The water will move up the wick and outward through the round paper. Infer why you see different colors at different locations on the filter paper. Wipe off any water drops on the lip of the cup. Place the round filter paper on a clean. Compare your chromatogram with those of your classmates. In this experiment. This will act as a wick to draw the ink. Fill one of the wide-mouth plastic cups with water to about 2 cm from the top.
Drawing on one of the fundamental laboratory techniques introduced in this chapter. Problem Objectives Materials Is there evidence of a chemical reaction between copper and silver nitrate? If so. Give an example of each. By examining a dramatic chemical reaction. Define the terms physical property and chemical property. ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets a physical change occurs. Form a hypothesis regarding what you might observe if a.
Obtain 8 cm of copper wire. Rub the copper wire with the sandpaper until it is shiny.
Do not allow to contact skin or clothing. Make and record an observation of the physical properties of the copper wire and AgNO3 solution. Coil the piece of copper wire to a length that will fit into the beaker. Make a hook on the end of the coil to allow the coil to be suspended from the stirring rod.
Hook the coil onto the middle of the stirring rod. Place the stirring rod across the top of the beaker immersing some of the coil in the AgNO3 solution. Make and record observations of the wire and the solution every five minutes for 20 minutes.
Use the ring stand, small iron ring, funnel, Erlenmeyer flask, and filter paper to set up a filtration apparatus.
Attach the iron ring to the ring stand. Adjust the height of the ring so the end of the funnel is inside the neck of the Erlenmeyer flask.
To fold the filter paper, examine the diagram above. Begin by folding the circle in half, then fold in half again. Tear off the lower right corner of the flap that is facing you. This will help the filter paper stick better to the funnel.
Open the folded paper into a cone. Place the filter paper cone in the funnel. Remove the coil from the beaker and dispose of it as directed by your teacher. Some of the solid product may form a mixture with the liquid in the beaker. Decant the liquid by slowly pouring it down the stirring rod into the funnel. Solid product will be caught in the filter paper. Collect the filtrate—the liquid that runs through the filter paper—in the Erlenmeyer flask.
Transfer the clear filtrate to a petri dish. Adjust a Bunsen burner flame until it is blue. Hold the paper clip with tongs in the flame until no additional color is observed. The paper clip will be very hot. Using tongs, dip the hot paper clip in the filtrate.
Then, hold the paper clip in the flame. Record the color you observe. Cleanup and Disposal Dispose of materials as directed by your teacher. Clean and return all lab equipment to its proper place. Wash hands thoroughly. Observe and Infer Describe the changes you observed in step 6. Is there evidence a chemical change occurred? Compare this information with your observations of the reactants and products in step 6. Identify Copper emits a blue-green light. Do your observations confirm the presence of copper in the filtrate collected in step 11?
Classify Which type of mixture is silver nitrate in water? Which type of mixture is formed in step 6? Inquiry Extension Compare your recorded observations with those of several other lab teams. Form a hypothesis to explain any differences; design an experiment to test it. Suppose you fill a glass with ice cubes. In which state s of matter do the molecules fill the entire volume of a container?
When the steam in the container changes to liquid water at room temperature. Name the physical states in which almost all matter exists. Section 3. Suppose you fill a container with steam and then seal the container. Compare the distance between the molecules of a gas in a very small container with the distance between the molecules of the same gas in a very large container. In which state s of matter are the molecules most compressed? When the ice cubes melt.
In which state s does matter take the shape of a container? Sections 3. Conservation of Mass Class 58 Chemistry: What does the law of conservation of mass state? After heating the test tube briefly. After the chemical reaction. Assume that the test tube shown in the transparency started out having Assume that the test tube shown started out having What happens when mercury II oxide is heated?
There is no mercury II oxide left in the test tube. What mass of liquid mercury was produced by the chemical reaction? Show your work. After heating the test tube. How much mercury II oxide did you start with? How much oxygen gas was produced by the chemical reaction? Suppose you heat some mercury II oxide in a test tube similar to the one shown. Write the law of conservation of mass in mathematical terms. Can it be broken down by ordinary chemical means? Into what two broad classes can all matter be divided?
A list of compounds and elements is given below. List three methods that are commonly used to separate mixtures into their component substances. Can a compound be a heterogeneous mixture? Explain your answer by referring to the diagram. What is the difference between a compound and an element?
Circle the substances that are elements. What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance? How can you tell the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture? Label each mixture below as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. How many grams of carbon are in Your analysis shows that the compound is What is the mass percentage of carbon in 5.
How many grams of oxygen are in Calculate the mass percentage of each element in salt. Suppose you analyze the composition of an unnamed compound. Draw a circle graph to represent your answer to question 7. What can you conclude about the compound? How many grams of hydrogen are in 6. KOH Potassium. Products Reactants Potassium hydroxide. H2 Use with Chapter 3. Assume that you are working with a chemical reaction that decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen.
You begin with 36 grams of water and end with 32 grams of oxygen. Assume that you are working with a chemical reaction that synthesizes salt from sodium and chlorine. You begin with If all of the water decomposes. How many oxygen atoms are in the reactants of the chemical reaction shown? How many are in the products? Assume that the chemical reaction shown started out having a total of 15 g of potassium and water. How many hydrogen atoms are in the reactants of the chemical reaction shown?
How many molecules of potassium hydroxide will be produced by the chemical reaction? How many hydrogen atoms will result? How much potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas will be produced by the chemical reaction?
How many potassium atoms are in the reactants of the chemical reaction shown? You synthesize If all of the reactants were used up. What percentage of the Complete the following statement by underlining the correct words in parentheses. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in sugar?
Of carbon? Of hydrogen? Draw a circle graph to represent your answer to Question 7. How many grams of oxygen are in g of sucrose? A B C 6 The electron configuration for an atom of iron is [Ar] 3d64s2. Which of the following is the correct electron-dot structure for iron? Matter and Change 8 2p 1s 2s 2p 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p The arrangement of electrons in an atom of an element determines the chemical properties of that element.
Use the graph below to answer questions 1—3. A The noble gases form very few compounds because they are gases. B The noble gases form very few compounds because they are rare. C The noble gases form very few compounds because they are radioactive. D The noble gases form very few compounds because their electron configurations are very stable.
Electronegativity 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Atomic Number 1 The electronegativity of an element indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons to form chemical bonds. A the atomic number increases and the electronegativity increases B the atomic number increases and the electronegativity decreases C the atomic number decreases and the electronegativity increases D 4 A brittle B solid C dull D gaseous the atomic number decreases and the electronegativity decreases 5 2 Metal is to malleable as nonmetal is to — Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties because they have — According to the graph, which of the following elements has the strongest attraction for electrons?
PERIODIC TABLE the principal energy level increases and the first ionization energy increases B the principal energy level increases and the first ionization energy decreases C the principal energy level decreases and the first ionization energy increases D the principal energy level decreases and the first ionization energy decreases Chemistry: As you move down a group — A 18 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 9 The periodic table has an unusual shape because it is divided into blocks representing the energy sublevel being filled with valence electrons.
In the periodic table shown in the diagram, which sequence lists these blocks in s-p-d-f order? According to the graph, what is the approximate first ionization energy for the element with atomic number 16? Heavy water contains deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen. What is the mass number of deuterium? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 Use the diagram below to answer question 4. Eventually, these gases were discovered on Earth in the late s.
What group does this family occupy in the modern periodic table? A Valence electrons move farther from the positively charged nucleus. B Valence electrons move farther from the negatively charged nucleus. C Valence electrons move closer to the positively charged nucleus. D Valence electrons move closer to the negatively charged nucleus.
Transition metals with unpaired valence electrons are attracted to a magnetic field. Which of these elements is NOT able to form a permanent magnet? A Cobalt B Copper C Nickel More than three times as much energy is used to make a new aluminum can than to process a recycled one. The main reason for this difference is that— D Iron A aluminum is not an abundant element B aluminum has a high melting point C it is difficult to extract aluminum from its ore D aluminum is not a reactive metal 9 In the periodic table, as you move from left to right across a period — A atomic radius increases and ionization energy increases B atomic radius increases and ionization energy decreases C atomic radius decreases and ionization energy increases D atomic radius decreases and ionization energy decreases Chemistry: Which of these is NOT a cation?
Use the table below to answer question 4. Scientists believe that electrons in the outer energy levels of the bonding metallic atoms are free to move from one atom to the next. Because they are free to move, these electrons are often referred to as — The table shows the lattice energy for some ionic compounds.
Based on these data, which of these compounds would require the most energy to separate the bonded ions? A The Na and the Cl atoms both lost electrons. B The Na and the Cl atoms both gained electrons. C The Na atom lost an electron, while the Cl atom gained an electron.
D The Na atom gained an electron, while the Cl atom lost an electron. A molecule is formed when two or more atoms form a covalent bond. According to this definition, which of these is NOT a molecule? Number Number of Atoms Prefix of Atoms Prefix 1 2 3 4 5 2 monoditritetrapenta- 6 7 8 9 10 hexaheptaoctanonadeca- 4 When hydrogen and fluorine combine, a polar covalent bond is formed.
Which of these formulas is the best way to express this relationship? What name would be given to the compound PBr5? At room temperature, iodine I2 is a solid and bromine Br2 is a liquid. These molecules have different melting points because of stronger — A covalent bonds in iodine B covalent bonds in bromine C intermolecular forces in iodine D intermolecular forces in bromine Use the diagram below to answer question 6.
Normal 1s 2s 1s 2s 18 s2 orbital B sp orbital C sp2 orbital D sp3 orbital A H2S B H2SO3 C H2SO4 D H2S The bond that holds two fluorine atoms together in an F2 molecule would be classified as nonpolar covalent because — A both atoms are different and the difference in electronegativity is large B both atoms are different and the difference in electronegativity is zero C both atoms are the same and the difference in electronegativity is large D both atoms are the same and the difference in electronegativity is zero 2p 2p Hybridized The diagram shows the electron configuration of a normal carbon atom and the rearrangement of electrons to form four new identical orbits in a hybridized carbon atom.
This type of hybrid orbital is called an — A 8 Which of these is the chemical formula for sulfurous acid?
Refer to the diagram below to answer questions 1—6. Which of these is the correct balanced chemical equation? Which of these is the complete ionic equation for this chemical reaction? A An iron nail changes to a brownish-orange color. B An ice cube melts into liquid water. C An antacid tablet produces bubbles of gas when placed in water. D A piece of zinc raises the temperature of an acid as it reacts with it.
Matter and Change 8 The diagram shows the activity series of some metals left and nonmetals right. A student set up four beakers, each containing mL of dilute hydrochloric acid HCl[aq]. She added 5 g of a metal to each beaker in this order: Which metal will NOT react with the acid?
How many moles of nitrogen atoms are contained in one mole of Ba NO3 2? What is the empirical formula for this compound? A amu B mass C molecule D particle What is the total number of atoms contained in 2. What is the mass, in grams, of 0.
Its chemical name is — A aqueous magnesium sulfate A 3. Indium In is a relatively rare element that never occurs as a free metal. It is usually found in a compound that contains After heating, 3.
What is the formula for the hydrate? What is the mass in grams of 2. A 11 22 A A 10 8 Potassium nitrate, also known as saltpeter, is used in matches. What is the percent by mass of potassium K in potassium nitrate KNO3? A chemist is about to synthesize tetraphosphorus decoxide by combining X grams of phosphorus with sufficient oxygen to react completely with the phosphorus.
If he wants to determine the amount of tetraphosphorus decoxide that will be produced, all of the following need to be answered before initiating the experiment EXCEPT — A Use the graph below to answer question 4. B What are the number of moles for each reactant? C What is the mole ratio of the two reactants? D Which is the limiting reactant and which is the excess reactant?
How many total iron atoms and oxygen molecules will be combined during the formation of Fe3O4? If this trend continues, how many mole ratios can be formed with a chemical reaction that has a sum of eight reactants and products? Which of these is NOT a mole ratio for this reaction?
A 2 mol Al: Use the graph below to answer question 6. How many moles of carbon dioxide will be produced if 30 moles of propane gas are burned? Matter and Change 10 In the movie The Wacky World of Chemistry, a chemist wrote down the following equation on a chalkboard: Which of the following is defined as a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a given sample of matter?
What type of intermolecular force creates the surface tension that allows the stones to skip? The boiling point occurs when the — Chemistry: Ionic solids such as sodium chloride are easily shattered, but metallic solids such as copper can be easily bent and shaped. This difference occurs because — A ionic solids have low melting points B atoms in metallic solids are not arranged in a regular pattern C covalent bonding between sodium and chlorine keeps the solid rigid D Use the diagram below to answer question Which of these labels should be placed above each of the arrows in the diagram?
F Energy added over the gray arrow; energy released over the black arrow G Particle velocity decreased over the gray arrow; particle velocity increased over the black arrow H Energy released over the gray arrow; energy added over the black arrow J Density decreased over the gray arrow; density increased over the black arrow Diffusion is the term used to describe the movement of one material through another.
The diffusion of gases can be explained by — A relative molar masses B differences in volume C evaporation D random motion Chemistry: Which graph best represents this relationship? A 3 Volume 1 Date: Temperature K 2 You are given a balloon filled with a known volume of helium gas. You place the balloon inside a freezer for an hour.
How will the balloon look after being in the freezer? A The kinetic-molecular theory of gases explains the behavior of gases at the molecular level. All of the following are part of this theory EXCEPT — A gas molecules experience completely elastic collisions B all gas molecules have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature C gas particles are in constant, random motion D gas molecules are incompressible B C D Reviewing Chemistry Chemistry: Physicians can use liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy warts and other skin growths.
Knowing the assumptions of the universal gas law, this should surprise you most because — 7 Helium gas is heated and its volume increases.
C gas particles are too small to be condensed D D if a gas can freeze, that would imply that gases can be kept at cold temperatures Hydrogen gas is cooled and its pressure increases. Which question cannot be answered scientifically? A David has two containers of two different gases at the same temperature and pressure. B What happens to a gas at standard temperature and pressure? D B when the pressure is increased, the volume of both containers will decrease What happens to a sample of gas at absolute zero?
C both containers contain the same number of gas particles D when the pressure is decreased, the temperature of both containers will increase Chemistry: Matter and Change 9 Air bags, which act as safety devices in cars, contain solid sodium azide. On impact, the sodium azide releases nitrogen gas, which expands the air bag.
How could the amount of NaCl that can be dissolved in the solution be increased? A Add more NaCl. B Heat the solution.
C Add a second salt. D Transfer the solution to a larger beaker. This process accelerates the rate because — A greater surface area increases the likelihood of collisions B it makes the solid immiscible C greater surface area decreases the likelihood of collisions D it creates an adiabatic environment Reviewing Chemistry point Quantity Boiling evaluation 1 mol? The table above shows the effects of various solutes in a given volume of water.
Without knowing the actual values, which of these is the most likely reason that the Na2CO3 will cause the greatest boiling point elevation? A Na2CO3 is the only solute that exhibits the Tyndall effect. B Na2CO3 produces the smallest number of moles in solution. C Na2CO3 has the greatest heat of enthalpy. D Na2CO3 produces the largest number of solute particles in solution.
A The crystallization rate must exceed the rate of solvation. B The colligative properties of the solute must be at a maximum. C The solvation rate must exceed the rate of crystallization.
D Seed crystals must be added to the solvent. D 30 9 Janet wants to dissolve carbon dioxide in water. The rate of solvation could be most improved by — C 8 Date: A The enthalpy of the reactants must be less than that of the products. B The sign of the change in enthalpy for the reaction must be positive. C The enthalpy of the products must be less than that of the reactants. D Heat must flow from the surroundings into the system. When you eat a slice of pizza, the crust is often less hot than the toppings or sauce.
This most likely occurs because the toppings and sauce have a greater — A molar enthalpy of formation B specific heat C heat of fusion D mass Use the equation below to answer question 3.
This is called the molar heat of vaporization. Given this information, which of these is the proper value for the molar heat of condensation? She places it over a Bunsen burner for a few minutes and notes condensation on the sides.
Then she places the flask in an ice bath for ten minutes, and notices that ice crystals begin to form. Leila knows that the one statement that cannot be true is that — A the kinetic energy of the sugar water at the end of the experiment is less than at the beginning of the experiment B the total energy in the sugar water at the end of the experiment is less than at the beginning of the experiment C the entropy of the sugar water at the beginning of the experiment is greater than at the end of the experiment D the total energy in the sugar water at the beginning of the experiment is greater than at the end of the experiment Chemistry: He then burned the entire candy bar and measured the amount of heat released.
His experiment was most likely designed to demonstrate — A the law of conservation of matter B the law of disorder C the law of conservation of energy D the law of constant composition Chemistry: Which of the following combinations of factors must be true for a reaction to be nonspontaneous?
A Which of these would always be called a spontaneous reaction? Which of these is required to calculate the rate of a reaction? A The change in enthalpy over time for the reaction B The time it takes for the reaction to go halfway to completion C The change in concentration of either the product or reactant over time D The change in temperature for the reaction over time Use the diagram below to answer question 4.
Energy 1 Date: How would the addition of a catalyst affect this reaction? A The presence of a catalyst would decrease the activation energy. Which of these decreases as the activation energy for a reaction increases? B The catalyst would increase the activation energy. A Number of inactivated complexes C B Entropy The presence of a catalyst would make the reaction more spontaneous.
C Amount of reactants D The catalyst would be consumed during the reaction and make more product. D Reaction rate 5 3 Products Reaction Progress 4 2 Reactants The collision theory explains why reactions occur and how certain factors increase or decrease the rate of reaction.
The collision theory involves all of the following EXCEPT that — A reacting substances must collide with the correct orientation B reacting substances must collide C reacting substances must collide spontaneously D reacting substances must collide with enough energy to form the activated complex Reviewing Chemistry Which of these will NOT appear in the net chemical equation that describes a complex reaction?
Use the formula below to answer question 6. Use the table below to answer question 9. Which of the following gives the correct result when the concentration of NO is doubled?
A The reaction rate is unaffected. B The reaction rate doubles. C The reaction rate triples. D The reaction rate quadruples. Which of these is classified as third order overall? Which statement most accurately describes the state of a reaction after it has reached chemical equilibrium? A At chemical equilibrium, equal amounts of products and reactants are present.
B The forward and reverse reactions are producing equal concentrations. C The forward and reverse reactions are occurring at equal rates. D At equilibrium, the reaction is continuing in either the forward or reverse direction. Use the equation below to answer question 3. To produce less product, what experimental change would be most effective? Use the equation below to answer question 2.
Which of these is the correct way to express the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction above? None of these will affect the equilibrium constant EXCEPT the — A addition of more product B decrease in volume C increase in pressure D increase in temperature Use the equation below to answer question 8.
A Decrease in pressure the combination of two common metals, silver and potassium, will decrease solubility B Addition of more ammonia C Decrease in volume the ion chromate is common to both solutions and will increase solubility D Addition of a catalyst Chemistry: A D 36 Date: Which of these decreases as the pH of a solution increases? All of the following are ways that acid rain affects the environment EXCEPT — A eroding buildings B promoting hydroxide deposits C leaching mineral ions from the soil D altering biological molecules necessary for aquatic life 5 6 3 Strong acids or bases make the best electrolytes because they — The neutralization of a strong acid by a strong base always involves the products — A water and a salt B an anion and a salt C water and an ion D a weak acid and a strong base Black coffee has a pH of approximately 5.
What is the pOH of black coffee? Use the table below to answer question 7. Use the equation below to answer question 9. Which of the following sequences shows these solutions from least acidic to most acidic? A Gastric juice, vinegar, human blood, baking soda B Baking soda, human blood, vinegar, gastric juice C Baking soda, vinegar, human blood, gastric juice D Gastric juice, human blood, vinegar, baking soda Buffers in your body are constantly working to prevent harmful increases or decreases in the pH of your blood, urine, and other fluids.
In order to resist such changes, a buffer is composed of — A a strong acid and a strong base B a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a weak base and its conjugate acid C a strong base and a weak acid D a strong acid and a weak base Chemistry: Which of the following characterizes the oxidation—reduction relationship? A Element losing electrons is losing oxygen, element gaining electrons is gaining oxygen. B Element gaining electrons is oxidized, element losing electrons is reduced.
C Element gaining electrons is losing hydrogen, element losing electrons is gaining hydrogen. D Element losing electrons is oxidized, element gaining electrons is reduced. Which of these best represents what is occurring?