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Goethe and Humboldt soon became close friends.
Humboldt often returned to Jena in the years that followed. Goethe remarked about Humboldt to friends that he had never met anyone so versatile. Humboldt's drive served as an inspiration for Goethe. In , Humboldt returned to Jena for three months. During this time, Goethe moved from his residence in Weimar to reside in Jena.
Together, Humboldt and Goethe attended university lectures on anatomy and conducted their own experiments.
One experiment involved hooking up a frog leg to various metals. They found no effect until the moisture of Humboldt's breath triggered a reaction that caused the frog leg to leap off the table.
Humboldt described this as one of his favorite experiments because it was as if he were "breathing life into" the leg. Humboldt obtained their corpses and analyzed them in the anatomy tower of the university. Goethe and Schiller were the key figures at the time. Humboldt contributed 7 June to Schiller's new periodical, Die Horen, a philosophical allegory entitled Die Lebenskraft, oder der rhodische Genius.
Although this service to the state was regarded by him as only an apprenticeship to the service of science, he fulfilled its duties with such conspicuous ability that not only did he rise rapidly to the highest post in his department, but he was also entrusted with several important diplomatic missions.
Neither brother attended the funeral. Humboldt was able to spend more time on writing up his research. Spanish American expedition, —[ edit ] Alexander von Humboldt's Latin American expedition Seeking a foreign expedition[ edit ] With the financial resources to finance his scientific travels, he sought a ship on a major expedition. Meantime, he went to Paris, where his brother Wilhelm was now living. Paris was a great center of scientific learning and his brother and sister-in-law Caroline were well connected in those circles.
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville urged Humboldt to accompany him on a major expedition, likely to last five years, but the French revolutionary Directoire placed Nicolas Baudin at the head of it rather than the aging scientific traveler.
He had already selected scientific instruments for his voyage. Discouraged, the two left Paris for Marseilles , where they hoped to join Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt, but North Africans were in revolt against the French invasion in Egypt and French authorities refused permission to travel.
Humboldt and Bonpland eventually found their way to Madrid , where their luck changed spectacularly. Baron Forell had an interest in mineralogy and science endeavors and inclined to help Humboldt. The Bourbon Reforms sought to reform administration of the realms and revitalize their economies. For Humboldt "the confluent effect of the Bourbon revolution in government and the Spanish Enlightenment had created ideal conditions for his venture". These were lengthy, state-sponsored enterprises to gather information about plants and animals from the Spanish realms, assess economic possibilities, and provide plants and seeds for the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid founded Spain under the Habsburg monarchy had guarded its realms against foreigner travelers and intruders.
The Bourbon monarch was open to Humboldt's proposal. With Humboldt's experience working for the absolutist Prussian monarchy as a government mining official, Humboldt had both the academic training and experience of working well within a bureaucratic structure.
Oil painting by Eduard Ender , Humboldt had not mapped out a specific plan of exploration, so that the change did not upend a fixed itinerary. He later wrote that the diversion to Venezuela made possible his explorations along the Orinoco River to the border of Portuguese Brazil.
With the diversion, the Pizarro encountered two large dugout canoes each carrying 18 Guayaqui Indians. The Pizarro's captain accepted the offer of one of them to serve as pilot. Humboldt hired this Indian, named Carlos del Pino, as a guide.
Cacao plantations were the most profitable, as world demand for chocolate rose. Also described the Guanoco asphalt lake as "The spring of the good priest" "Quelle des guten Priesters". Around 19 March , Humboldt and Bonpland discovered dangerous electric eels , whose shock could kill a man. To catch them, locals suggested they drive wild horses into the river, which brought the eels out from the river mud, and resulted in a violent confrontation of eels and horses, some of which died.
Humboldt and Bonpland captured and dissected some eels, which retained their ability to shock; both received potentially dangerous electric shocks during their investigations. The encounter made Humboldt think more deeply about electricity and magnetism, typical of his ability to extrapolate from an observation to more general principles. Humboldt laid to rest the persistent myth of Walter Raleigh 's Lake Parime by proposing that the seasonal flooding of the Rupununi savannah had been misidentified as a lake.
Humboldt, who was already in Cuba, interceded with crown officials in Havana, as well as giving them money and clothing. Fraser obtained permission to remain in Cuba and explore. Humboldt entrusted Fraser with taking two cases of Humboldt and Bonpland's botanical specimens to England when he returned, for eventual conveyance to the German botantist Willdenow in Berlin.
Humboldt is considered to be the "second discoverer of Cuba" due to the scientific and social research he conducted on this Spanish colony. During an initial three-month stay at Havana , his first tasks were to properly survey that city and the nearby towns of Guanabacoa , Regla , and Bejucal.
Those three areas were, at the time, the first frontier of sugar production in the island. During those trips, Humboldt collected statistical information on Cuba's population, production, technology and trade, and with Arango, made suggestions for enhancing them. He predicted that the agricultural and commercial potential of Cuba was huge and could be vastly improved with proper leadership in the future. On their way back to Europe from Mexico on their way to the United States, Humboldt and Bonpland stopped again in Cuba, leaving from the port of Veracruz and arriving in Cuba on 7 January , staying until 29 April In Cuba, he collected plant material and made extensive notes.
Mutis was generous with his time and gave Humboldt access to the huge pictorial record he had compiled since This type of careful recording meant that even if specimens were not available to study at a distance, "because the images traveled, the botanists did not have to". This was a world record at the time, but feet short of the summit. Even before Humboldt and Bonpland started on their way to New Spain's capital on Mexico's central plateau, Humboldt realized the captain of the vessel that brought them to Acapulco had reckoned its location incorrectly.
Since Acapulco was the main west-coast port and the terminus of the Asian trade from the Spanish Philippines, having accurate maps of its location was extremely important. Humboldt set up his instruments, surveying the deep-water bay of Acapulco, to determine its longitude. In April , he visited Cuernavaca , Morelos.
Impressed by its climate, he nicknamed the city the City of Eternal Spring. Humboldt was also given a special passport to travel throughout New Spain and letters of introduction to intendants, the highest officials in New Spain's administrative districts intendancies.
This official aid to Humboldt allowed him to have access to crown records, mines, landed estates, canals, and Mexican antiquities from the prehispanic era. The first journey was from Acapulco to Mexico City, through what is now the Mexican state of Guerrero. The route was suitable only for mule train, and all along the way, Humboldt took measurements of elevation. Social structures are therefore as real as the material structures Wendt, , p.
Cultures of Anarchy 1 Hobbesian Enmity otherwise known as Hobbesian culture of anarchy is often taken as permissive cause of war by the neorealists. The enemies intentions are perceived as being unlimited in nature.
Hobbes notes that some enemies are real whereas others are imagined. The depiction of either real or imagined does not affect the Hobbesian culture, what matters is the perception of the enemies by the actors of whether they are real or imagined. In other words the more actors in a system represent others as enemies, the depiction takes root and it reaches a point where the actor views others as enemies by their mere membership in the system.
This goes on to a point of no return even as new members join the system and get socialized. Constructing an enemy of the other is also done by encouraging other to take identity of the enemy through actions such as groups created within the state that lobby for maximization of power to outcompete a constructed enemy.
The Soviet Union and the US militaries took on this analogy during the Cold war in order to advance their interests Mead, , p. Wendt further observes David Campbell whereby actors are viewed to fulfill their national interests security, self-esteem through construction of an enemy Campbell, Self-esteem enhancement on the other hand comes about as members of a group within states compare favorably with other states leading to egoistic definition of interests. Lockean culture of anarchy Wendt observes that Hobbesian culture of kill or be killed has taken another turn where by actors want to live thus live and let live Lockean anarchical society Wendt, , p.
Rivalry replaces enmity in this culture. When more and more of this recognition goes on in the international society shared expectation arises. The recognition of other sovereignty, liberty and life does not imply that force cannot be exercised; dispute settlement can resort to force but within confines of allowance to live Wendt, , p. Rivalry at the international society takes form of collective representation creating an anarchical society at a macro-level with four tendencies.
Simultaneous acceptance of war as a mode of extending national interests but constrained within limits of not killing states. This implies the existence of states is not at stake but configurative wars are staged over territory and strategic advantage while accepting the sovereignty of the other despite violating it by use of violence.
Limited warfare-encourages stable membership with reduced rate of state deaths. This places sovereign states on equal footing with dysfunctional ones since the system only encourages membership of sovereign states.
The discouragement of state deaths implies weak states have a chance of survival thus upholding the Westphalian norms Wendt, , p. This follows states recognition of others sovereignty thus arresting the Hobbesian state of nature by not accumulating power due to its lack of logic in state survival Wendt, , p.
This indicates that despite security predicament and proclivity to violence conflicts can be resolved without threat to survival and autonomy Wendt, Wendt thus acknowledges the importance of sovereignty which he views as the foundation for the international system Wendt, , p. Sovereignty in Lockean state of nature helps states to resolve their differences without threat of elimination. It also helps to advance national-interests in collective self-esteem in a less threatening environment.
The assurance of sovereignty eliminates mind threat of possible elimination by other. The recognition of sovereignty can be said to exclude certain players in the Lockean culture. Kantian Culture of anarchy based on friendship. The Kantian culture is derived from friendship thus subjects position of friend. The rule of non-violence is embodied, implying resolution of disputes without violence or its threat.
Living peacefully with one another and resolving to go own way happens. Friendship is thus continual despite occasional fallouts Wendt, , p.
The outcome of Kantian culture of anarchy is collective security within which members are assured of good intentions that cannot deteriorate to physical fight or threat of war regardless of their internal indifferences that could be ongoing.
Mutual aid comes from common reciprocity in which reciprocal aid is given, despite direct return. Specific reciprocity on the other hands expects a return favor Wendt, , p. When matters of national security occur, multilateralism takes over or in other words other help is given.
Collaboration is thus not a depiction of a threat from others but a way of enhancing security as a bloc Wendt, , p. Challenges to realism Constructivism challenges certain assumptions of neorealism.
Upholding that most of the important content in international politics is explained by the structure of the international system translates to fundamental causal structuralisms. Kenneth Waltz Man, the state and war advances this by elucidating in his central thesis of neorealism, Theory of international politics that international politics is mainly determined by the fact that international system is anarchic, lacking an overarching authority constituting of sub-units states which are equal formally and sovereign in their own given territories.
Anarchy forces states to behave in certain ways hence the idea of self-help in order to defend their self- interests such as power.
In other words structures do not lead to causal powers independent of processes that form the structures to begin with Wendt, , p.
Taking an example of Waltz work about material power and specifically military power, despite lodging the explanation on anarchical society in analyzing the behavior of states, something very critical is underplayed according to Wendt, the fact that for example nuclear bombs in the hands of UK is perceived less threatening than 5 in possession of North Korea Schonberg, , informs that there is a process of identity and perception that has taken place thus actors acquire identities that are held consistent thus forming understanding Wendt, , p.
The acquired identities goes ahead to inform of the actors interests. The interests are changeable and different because states outline interests in the process of defining circumstances Wendt, , p.
The end of cold war also meant Soviet Union and the U. S redefining their interests since the situation shaping their interests was no more.
A deeper look at the state of nature, Wendt observes that, states are first made of domestic material which is postulated in the international society. Second is that states try to survive in the international society Wendt, , p. This process is what creates identities and lasting social structures Wendt, , p. To explain this Wendt further elucidates that, if the structure of neorealist is stripped off the identities and interests of the actors involved, it will reveal very little.
In other words it will fail to predict whether two states will be friends or foes, will have dynastic ties, will revise or maintain held positions Wendt, , p. The implication is; the way anarchy constrains states is informed by the way the states conceive anarchy and their own identities and interests. Self-help system is thus not constrained to anarchy unless states choose to view it using Neorealists lens which thus views security as competitive conceptualizing that a gain in security by one state implies loss of security by another actor s.
If the lens was changed and security conceptualized as collective or co-operative a gain in security by one actor would not infer insecurity to another. Anarchy thus would not lead to self-help Wendt, Neorealists thus depend on unspoken and unquestioned assumptions on how social institutions are constructed by the actors. The assumption that such meanings are unchangeable leads to exclusion of the processes of social construction which are the bases for the expounding work underneath the Neorealists observations.
Anarchy is also a resultant of a process through formation of identities and interests. Cultures of anarchy therefore affect the meaning of power and content of their interests thus creating the behaviors exhibited in the international system. Constructivists believe in the inter-subjectivity of interests as opposed to realism belief in lone identity of sovereign status of states.